Documentation/pretty-{formats,options}: better reference for "format:<string>"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
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1git-checkout(1)
2===============
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3
4NAME
5----
76ce9462 6git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
71bb1033 10[verse]
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11'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
12'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [-b <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
eac5a401 13'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
4f353658 14'git checkout' --patch [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
4aaa7027 18
71bb1033 19When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
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20updating the index, working tree, and HEAD to reflect the specified
21branch.
4aaa7027 22
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23If `-b` is given, a new branch is created and checked out, as if
24linkgit:git-branch[1] were called; in this case you can
25use the --track or --no-track options, which will be passed to `git
26branch`. As a convenience, --track without `-b` implies branch
27creation; see the description of --track below.
bb0ceb62 28
4f353658 29When <paths> or --patch are given, this command does *not* switch
4aaa7027 30branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
ecc03c1c 31the index file, or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit). In
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32this case, the `-b` and `--track` options are meaningless and giving
33either of them results in an error. The <tree-ish> argument can be
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34used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
35to update the index for the given paths before updating the
36working tree.
4aaa7027 37
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38The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
39default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
40checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
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41Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
42specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
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43using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
44file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
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45
46OPTIONS
47-------
6124aee5 48-q::
f7aec129 49--quiet::
2be7fcb4 50 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
6124aee5 51
0270f7c5 52-f::
f7aec129 53--force::
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54 When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
55 working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
56 local changes.
57+
58When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
59entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
0270f7c5 60
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61--ours::
62--theirs::
63 When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
64 ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
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65
66-b::
2b1f4247 67 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
76cfadfc 68 <start_point>; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
7fc9d69f 69
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70-t::
71--track::
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72 When creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration. See
73 "--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
bb0ceb62 74+
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75If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
76derived from the remote branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
77is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
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78next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
79This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
80off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
81"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
82guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
971e8352 83explicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
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84
85--no-track::
167d7445 86 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
70e96647 87 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable is true.
0746d19a 88
969d326d 89-l::
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90 Create the new branch's reflog; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for
91 details.
969d326d 92
1be0659e 93-m::
eac5a401 94--merge::
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95 When switching branches,
96 if you have local modifications to one or more files that
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97 are different between the current branch and the branch to
98 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
99 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
100 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
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101 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
102 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
103+
104When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
105paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
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106and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
107should result in deletion of the path).
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108+
109When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
110the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
1be0659e 111
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112--conflict=<style>::
113 The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
114 conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
115 merge.conflictstyle configuration variable. Possible values are
116 "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
117 "merge" style, shows the original contents).
1be0659e 118
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119-p::
120--patch::
121 Interactively select hunks in the difference between the
122 <tree-ish> (or the index, if unspecified) and the working
123 tree. The chosen hunks are then applied in reverse to the
124 working tree (and if a <tree-ish> was specified, the index).
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126This means that you can use `git checkout -p` to selectively discard
127edits from your current working tree.
128
0270f7c5 129<branch>::
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130 Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
131 when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
132 branch is checked out. Otherwise, if it refers to a valid
133 commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
134 any branch (see below for details).
696acf45 135+
dcb11263 136As a special case, the `"@\{-N\}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
696acf45 137checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
dcb11263 138`-` which is synonymous with `"@\{-1\}"`.
5e1a2e8c 139
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140<new_branch>::
141 Name for the new branch.
142
143<start_point>::
144 The name of a commit at which to start the new branch; see
145 linkgit:git-branch[1] for details. Defaults to HEAD.
146
147<tree-ish>::
148 Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified,
149 the index will be used.
150
151
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152
153Detached HEAD
154-------------
155
156It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
157not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
158example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
159point, like this:
160
161------------
162$ git checkout v2.6.18
163------------
164
165Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
c7cb12b8 166create a temporary branch using the `-b` option, but starting from
5e1a2e8c 167version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
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168current branch and directly points at the commit named by the tag
169(`v2.6.18` in the example above).
5e1a2e8c 170
c7cb12b8 171You can use all git commands while in this state. You can use
b1889c36 172`git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
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173example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
174a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
175merge $othercommit`.
176
177The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
178by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
179What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
180and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
181checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
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182garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
183the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
184
185------------
186$ git log -g -2 HEAD
187------------
7fc9d69f 188
4aaa7027 189
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190EXAMPLES
191--------
4aaa7027 192
1be0659e 193. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
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194the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
195mistake, and gets it back from the index.
1be0659e 196+
4aaa7027 197------------
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198$ git checkout master <1>
199$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
4aaa7027 200$ rm -f hello.c
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201$ git checkout hello.c <3>
202------------
203+
1e2ccd3a 204<1> switch branch
c7cb12b8 205<2> take a file out of another commit
ce8936c3 206<3> restore hello.c from the index
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208If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
209step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
210You should instead write:
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212------------
213$ git checkout -- hello.c
214------------
215
c7cb12b8 216. After working in the wrong branch, switching to the correct
71bb1033 217branch would be done using:
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218+
219------------
220$ git checkout mytopic
221------------
222+
223However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
c7cb12b8 224differ in files that you have modified locally, in which case
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225the above checkout would fail like this:
226+
227------------
228$ git checkout mytopic
229fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
230------------
231+
232You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
233three-way merge:
234+
235------------
236$ git checkout -m mytopic
237Auto-merging frotz
238------------
239+
240After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
241registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
242changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
243
244. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
245the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
246+
247------------
248$ git checkout -m mytopic
249Auto-merging frotz
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250ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
251fatal: merge program failed
252------------
253+
254At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
255the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
256files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
d7f078b8 257`git add` as usual:
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258+
259------------
260$ edit frotz
d7f078b8 261$ git add frotz
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262------------
263
4aaa7027 264
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265Author
266------
267Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
268
269Documentation
270--------------
271Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
272
273GIT
274---
9e1f0a85 275Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite