Git 2.4.12
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
4000b402 46* link:v2.4.12/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.12]
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47
48* release notes for
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61 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
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76 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
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93 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
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356 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
357 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
358 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 359
621f1b4b 360* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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361
362* release notes for
761e742d
NP
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
366 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 367
efe05b01 368* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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369
370* release notes for
761e742d
NP
371 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
372 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
374 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
375 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
376 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
377 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 378
efe05b01 379* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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380
381* release notes for
761e742d
NP
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 389
efe05b01 390* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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391
392* release notes for
761e742d
NP
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 400
efe05b01 401* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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402
403* release notes for
761e742d
NP
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 412
e708af6e 413* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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414
415* release notes for
761e742d
NP
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 425
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426* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
427
aba170cd 428* release notes for
761e742d
NP
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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435
436* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
437
438* release notes for
761e742d
NP
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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446
447* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
448
aba170cd 449* release notes for
761e742d
NP
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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457
458* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
459 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
460 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
461 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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462
463============
464
465endif::stalenotes[]
466
cb22bc44
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467OPTIONS
468-------
469--version::
2de9b711 470 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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471
472--help::
a87cd02c 473 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 474 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 475 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 476 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
45533d26
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477+
478Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 479displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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480because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
481help ...`.
cb22bc44 482
44e1e4d6
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483-C <path>::
484 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
485 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
486 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
487 <path>`.
488+
489This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
490`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
491made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
492example the following invocations are equivalent:
493
494 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
495 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
496
8b1fa778
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497-c <name>=<value>::
498 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
499 given will override values from configuration files.
500 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
501 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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502+
503Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
504`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
505config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
506foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 507
62b4698e 508--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 509 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 510 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 511 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
cb22bc44
AE
512 the current setting and then exit.
513
89a56bfb 514--html-path::
2de9b711 515 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 516 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 517
f2dd8c37 518--man-path::
239b5ed9 519 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 520 this version of Git and exit.
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521
522--info-path::
239b5ed9 523 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 524 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 525
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526-p::
527--paginate::
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528 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
529 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
530 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
531 below).
6acbcb92 532
463a849d 533--no-pager::
2de9b711 534 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 535
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536--git-dir=<path>::
537 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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538 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
539 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 540
892c41b9 541--work-tree=<path>::
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542 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
543 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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544 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
545 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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546 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
547 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 548
d49483f0 549--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 550 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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551 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
552 variable.
553
6acbcb92 554--bare::
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555 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
556 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
557 directory.
558
b0fa7ab5 559--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 560 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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561 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
562
823ab40f 563--literal-pathspecs::
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564 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
565 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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566 variable to `1`.
567
6fb02165 568--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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569 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
570 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
571 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
572 magic ":(literal)"
573
6fb02165 574--noglob-pathspecs::
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575 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
576 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
577 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
578 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 579
6fb02165 580--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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581 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
582 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 583
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584GIT COMMANDS
585------------
9755afbd 586
2de9b711 587We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 588("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 589
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590High-level commands (porcelain)
591-------------------------------
592
593We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
594ancillary user utilities.
595
596Main porcelain commands
597~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 598
377e8139 599include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 600
90933efb 601Ancillary Commands
23091e95 602~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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603Manipulators:
604
377e8139 605include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 606
90933efb 607Interrogators:
204ee6a9 608
377e8139 609include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 610
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611
612Interacting with Others
613~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
614
615These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
616people via patch over e-mail.
617
618include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
619
620
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621Low-level commands (plumbing)
622-----------------------------
623
2de9b711 624Although Git includes its
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625own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
626development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
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627might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
628linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 629
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630The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
631to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
632than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
633primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
634on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
635end user experience.
636
637The following description divides
638the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
RR
639the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
640compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
641repositories.
642
89bf2077 643
b1f33d62
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644Manipulation commands
645~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 646
377e8139 647include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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648
649
650Interrogation commands
651~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
652
377e8139 653include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
RR
654
655In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
656the working tree.
657
658
659Synching repositories
660~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
661
377e8139 662include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 663
57f6ec02 664The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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665typically do not use them directly.
666
667include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
668
669
670Internal helper commands
671~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
672
673These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
674users typically do not use them directly.
675
676include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
677
b1f33d62 678
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679Configuration Mechanism
680-----------------------
681
c0179c0d
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682Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
683repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
684like this:
5773c9f2
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685
686------------
687#
2fa090b6 688# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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689#
690
691; core variables
692[core]
693 ; Don't trust file modes
694 filemode = false
695
696; user identity
697[user]
698 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 699 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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700
701------------
702
703Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 704their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 705list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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706
707
6c84e2e0 708Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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709----------------------
710<object>::
2fa090b6 711 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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712
713<blob>::
2fa090b6 714 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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715
716<tree>::
2fa090b6 717 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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718
719<commit>::
2fa090b6 720 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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721
722<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 723 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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724 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
725 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
726 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 727
043d7605
TT
728<commit-ish>::
729 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
730 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
731 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
732 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
733
2cf565c5
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734<type>::
735 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 736 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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737
738<file>::
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739 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
740 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 741
c1bdacf9
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742Symbolic Identifiers
743--------------------
2de9b711 744Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 745symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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746
747HEAD::
0abcfbff 748 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 749
c1bdacf9 750<tag>::
2fa090b6 751 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 752 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 753
c1bdacf9 754<head>::
2fa090b6 755 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 756 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 757
d47107d8 758For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 759"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 760
c1bdacf9
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761
762File/Directory Structure
763------------------------
c1bdacf9 764
6998e4db 765Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 766
6998e4db 767Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 768
c1bdacf9 769Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 770`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 771
a1d4aa74 772
2cf565c5
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773Terminology
774-----------
6998e4db 775Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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776
777
778Environment Variables
779---------------------
2de9b711 780Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 781
2de9b711 782The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 783~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 784These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 785is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2de9b711 786Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
c1bdacf9
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787
788'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
789 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
790 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
791 is used.
c1bdacf9 792
136347d7
TG
793'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
794 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
795 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
70320541
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796 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
797 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 798
c1bdacf9
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799'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
800 If the object storage directory is specified via this
801 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
802 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
803 directory is used.
804
805'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 806 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 807 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 808 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 809 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 810 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
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811
812'GIT_DIR'::
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813 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
814 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
815 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 816 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 817
892c41b9 818'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 819 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 820 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
821 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
822
d49483f0 823'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 824 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
d49483f0
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825 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
826
0454dd93 827'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 828 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 829 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
830 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
831 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
832 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
833 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
834 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
835 might be present in order to compare them with the current
836 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
837 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
838 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
839 e.g.,
840 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 841
cf87463e 842'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 843 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 844 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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845 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
846 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 847 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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848 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
849 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
850 command line.
8030e442 851
2de9b711 852Git Commits
c1bdacf9
DG
853~~~~~~~~~~~
854'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
855'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
856'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
857'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
858'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 859'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 860'EMAIL'::
5162e697 861 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 862
2de9b711 863Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 864~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 865'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
866 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
867 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
868 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 869 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 870
d81ed1b5 871'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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SE
872 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
873 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
874 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
875 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
876
877 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
878+
879where:
880
881 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
882 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 883 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 884 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
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885+
886The file parameters can point at the user's working file
887(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
888when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
889index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
890temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
891+
892For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
893parameter, <path>.
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894+
895For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
896'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
897
898'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
899 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
900
901'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
902 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 903
575ba9d6
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904other
905~~~~~
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906'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
907 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
908 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 909 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 910
c27d205a 911'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 912 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 913 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
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914 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
915 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 916
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917'GIT_EDITOR'::
918 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 919 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
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RSM
920 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
921 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
922
d5538b41 923'GIT_SSH'::
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924'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
925 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
926 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
927 when they need to connect to a remote system.
928 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
929 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
930 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
931 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
932 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 933+
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934`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
935by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
936`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
937(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
938needed).
d5538b41
SP
939+
940Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
941personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
942for further details.
943
453842c9 944'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 945 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 946 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 947 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
da0005b8 948 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
453842c9
KF
949 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
950
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951'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
952 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
953 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
954
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955'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
956 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
957 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
958 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
959 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
960 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
961 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
962
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963'GIT_FLUSH'::
964 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 965 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 966 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
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AS
967 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
968 flushed. If this
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TT
969 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
970 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 971 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
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972 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
973
575ba9d6 974'GIT_TRACE'::
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KB
975 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
976 command execution and external command execution.
977+
978If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
979is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
980stderr.
981+
982If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
983and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
984value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
985trace messages into this file descriptor.
986+
987Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
988(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
989as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
990into it.
991+
992Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
993"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 994
b12ca963 995'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 996 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
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NTND
997 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
998 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
999 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 1000 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 1001
1dd278ce 1002'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
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1003 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1004 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1005 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1006 starting with "PACK".
1007 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1008
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1009'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1010 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1011 time of each Git command.
1012 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1013
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1014'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1015 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1016 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1017 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1018
1019'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1020 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1021 cloning of shallow repositories.
1022 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1023
823ab40f 1024GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
2de9b711 1025 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
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1026 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1027 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1028 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1029 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1030 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
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1031 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1032
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1033GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1034 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1035 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1036
1037GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1038 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1039 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1040
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1041GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1042 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1043 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1044
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1045'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1046 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1047 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1048 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1049 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1050 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1051 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1052 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1053 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1054
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1055`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1056 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1057 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1058 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1059 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1060 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1061 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1062 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1063 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1064 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1065
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1066`GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1067 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1068 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1069 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1070 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1071 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1072 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1073 currently used by git are:
1074
1075 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1076 or local paths)
1077
1078 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1079 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1080
1081 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1082 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1083
1084 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1085
1086 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1087 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1088 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1089
1090 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1091 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
a5adaced 1092
823ab40f 1093
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1094Discussion[[Discussion]]
1095------------------------
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1096
1097More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1098link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1099user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1100
2de9b711 1101A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
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1102subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1103things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1104of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1105contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1106as tags and branch heads.
1107
1108The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1109hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1110directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
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1111and some number of parent commits.
1112
1113The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1114"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1115represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1116parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1117
d5fa1f1a 1118All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1119written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1120The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1121just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1122purpose.
1123
1124When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1125efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1126
1127Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1128may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1129with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1130recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
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BF
1131tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1132`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1133
1134The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1135path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1136the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1137attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1138corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1139working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1140be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1141content stored in the index.
1142
1143The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1144for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1145unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1146
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1147FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1148---------------------
1149
1150See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1151using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
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1152for a first-time user.
1153
2de9b711 1154The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1155user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1156introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
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1157
1158See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1159
1160See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1161examples.
1162
1163The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1164link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1165
1166Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1167read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1168
1169
cb22bc44
AE
1170Authors
1171-------
48bb914e 1172Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1173C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1174<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
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1175gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1176
1177If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
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1178output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1179the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1180
c97ca277
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1181Reporting Bugs
1182--------------
1183
1184Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1185development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1186subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1187
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1188SEE ALSO
1189--------
1190linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1191linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1192linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
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1193linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1194linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1195
2cf565c5
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1196GIT
1197---
9e1f0a85 1198Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite