Document "git log --simplify-by-decoration"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
26b4d003 16--date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short}::
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17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
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19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
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21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
34`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
35(either committer's or author's).
36
adf60f14 37ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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38--header::
39
40 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
41 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 42endif::git-rev-list[]
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43
44--parents::
45
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46 Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent
47 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 48
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49--children::
50
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51 Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent
52 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 53
adf60f14 54ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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55--timestamp::
56 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 57endif::git-rev-list[]
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58
59--left-right::
60
61 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
62 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
63 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
64 commits are prefixed with `-`.
65+
66For example, if you have this topology:
67+
68-----------------------------------------------------------------------
69 y---b---b branch B
70 / \ /
71 / .
72 / / \
73 o---x---a---a branch A
74-----------------------------------------------------------------------
75+
d777af86 76you would get an output like this:
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77+
78-----------------------------------------------------------------------
79 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
80
81 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
82 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
83 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
84 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
85 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
86 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
87-----------------------------------------------------------------------
88
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89--graph::
90
91 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
92 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
93 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
94 to be drawn properly.
95+
96This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
97'--date-order' option may also be specified.
98
9612e743 99ifndef::git-rev-list[]
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100Diff Formatting
101~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
102
103Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
104Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
105options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
106
107-c::
108
109 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
110 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
111 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
112 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
113 which were modified from all parents.
114
115--cc::
116
117 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
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118 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
119 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
120 one of them without modification.
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121
122-r::
123
124 Show recursive diffs.
125
126-t::
127
128 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
9612e743 129endif::git-rev-list[]
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130
131Commit Limiting
132~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
133
134Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
135special notations explained in the description, additional commit
136limiting may be applied.
137
138--
139
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140-n 'number'::
141--max-count='number'::
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142
143 Limit the number of commits output.
144
145--skip='number'::
146
147 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
148
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149--since='date'::
150--after='date'::
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151
152 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
153
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154--until='date'::
155--before='date'::
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156
157 Show commits older than a specific date.
158
56b6d01d 159ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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160--max-age='timestamp'::
161--min-age='timestamp'::
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162
163 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 164endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 165
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166--author='pattern'::
167--committer='pattern'::
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168
169 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
170 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
171
172--grep='pattern'::
173
174 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
175 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
176
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177--all-match::
178 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
179 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
180
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181-i::
182--regexp-ignore-case::
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183
184 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
185
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186-E::
187--extended-regexp::
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188
189 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
190 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
191
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192-F::
193--fixed-strings::
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194
195 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
196 pattern as a regular expression).
197
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198--remove-empty::
199
200 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
201
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202--no-merges::
203
204 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
205
206--first-parent::
207 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
208 commit. This option can give a better overview when
209 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
210 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
211 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
212 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
213 brought in to your history by such a merge.
214
215--not::
216
217 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
218 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
219
220--all::
221
222 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
223 command line as '<commit>'.
224
adf60f14 225ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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226--stdin::
227
228 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
229 line, read them from the standard input.
230
231--quiet::
232
233 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
234 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
235 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
236 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
237 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 238endif::git-rev-list[]
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239
240--cherry-pick::
241
242 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
243 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
244 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
245+
246For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
247to list all commits on only one side of them is with
248`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
249that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
250from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
251from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
252excluded from the output.
253
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254-g::
255--walk-reflogs::
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256
257 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
258 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
259 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
260 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
261 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
262+
263With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
264this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
265taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
266used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 267'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
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268instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
269prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 270This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
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271See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
272
273--merge::
274
275 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
276 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
277
278--boundary::
279
280 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
281 not shown.
282
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283--
284
285History Simplification
286~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
287
288When optional paths are given, 'git-rev-list' simplifies commits with
289various strategies, according to the options you have selected.
290
291Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
292that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
293filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
294
295In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
296illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
297that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
298-----------------------------------------------------------------------
299 .-A---M---N---O---P
300 / / / / /
301 I B C D E
302 \ / / / /
303 `-------------'
304-----------------------------------------------------------------------
305The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
306each merge. The commits are:
307
308* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
309 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
310 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
311
312* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
313
314* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
315 hence TREESAME to all parents.
316
317* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
318 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
319
320* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
321 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
322
323* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
324 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
325 TREESAME to all parents.
326
327'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
328commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
329(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
330are available.
331
332Default mode::
333
334 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
335 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
336 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
337 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
338 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
339 parents.
340+
341This results in:
342+
343-----------------------------------------------------------------------
344 .-A---N---O
345 / /
346 I---------D
347-----------------------------------------------------------------------
348+
349Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
350available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
351considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
352empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
353+
354Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
355not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
356parent lines.
357
358--full-history without parent rewriting::
359
360 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
361 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
362 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
363 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
364 the example, we get
365+
366-----------------------------------------------------------------------
367 I A B N D O
368-----------------------------------------------------------------------
369+
370`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
371`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
372do not appear.
373+
374Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
375about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
376them disconnected.
377
378--full-history with parent rewriting::
379
380 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
381 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
382+
383Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
384Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
385themselves. This results in
386+
387-----------------------------------------------------------------------
388 .-A---M---N---O---P
389 / / / / /
390 I B / D /
391 \ / / / /
392 `-------------'
393-----------------------------------------------------------------------
394+
395Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
396was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
397rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
398`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
399
400In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
401affects inclusion:
402
3240240f 403--dense::
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404
405 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
406 to any parent.
407
3240240f 408--sparse::
fdcf39e5 409
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410 All commits that are walked are included.
411+
412Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
413one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
414sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 415
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416Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
417
418--simplify-merges::
419
420 First, build a history graph in the same way that
421 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
422+
423Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
424history according to the following rules:
425+
426--
427* Set `C'` to `C`.
428+
429* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
430 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
431 remove duplicates.
432+
433* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
434 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
435 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
436--
437+
438The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
439'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
440+
441-----------------------------------------------------------------------
442 .-A---M---N---O
443 / / /
444 I B D
445 \ / /
446 `---------'
447-----------------------------------------------------------------------
448+
449Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
450+
451--
452* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
453 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
454+
455* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
456 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
457--
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459The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
460big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
461that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
462(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
463above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
464contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
465commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
466
fdcf39e5 467ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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468Bisection Helpers
469~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
470
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471--bisect::
472
473Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
474the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
475
476-----------------------------------------------------------------------
477 $ git-rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
478-----------------------------------------------------------------------
479
480outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
481
482-----------------------------------------------------------------------
483 $ git-rev-list foo ^midpoint
484 $ git-rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
485-----------------------------------------------------------------------
486
487would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
488introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
489generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
490one.
491
492--bisect-vars::
493
494This calculates the same as `--bisect`, but outputs text ready
495to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of
496the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
497expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is
498tested to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be
499tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`,
500the expected number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev`
501turns out to be bad to `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits
502we are bisecting right now to `bisect_all`.
503
504--bisect-all::
505
506This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
507commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
508commits. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only
509one displayed by `--bisect`.)
510
511This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
512test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
513may not compile for example).
514
515This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
516after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
517`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
518endif::git-rev-list[]
519
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520
521Commit Ordering
522~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
523
524By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
525
526--topo-order::
527
528 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
529 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
530
531--date-order::
532
533 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
534 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
535 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
536
537--reverse::
538
539 Output the commits in reverse order.
540 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
541
542Object Traversal
543~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
544
545These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
546
547--objects::
548
549 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
550 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
551 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
552 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
553
554--objects-edge::
555
556 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
557 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
558 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
559 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
560 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
561
562--unpacked::
563
564 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
565 in packs.
566
567--no-walk::
568
569 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
570
571--do-walk::
572
573 Overrides a previous --no-walk.