Merge branch 'maint-2.0' into maint-2.1
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Limiting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
5special notations explained in the description, additional commit
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6limiting may be applied.
7
8Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
9`--since=<date1>` limits to commits newer than `<date1>`, and using it
10with `--grep=<pattern>` further limits to commits whose log message
11has a line that matches `<pattern>`), unless otherwise noted.
12
13Note that these are applied before commit
14ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
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15
16--
17
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18-<number>::
19-n <number>::
982962ce 20--max-count=<number>::
841d8118 21 Limit the number of commits to output.
fdcf39e5 22
982962ce 23--skip=<number>::
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24 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
25
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26--since=<date>::
27--after=<date>::
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28 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
29
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30--until=<date>::
31--before=<date>::
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32 Show commits older than a specific date.
33
56b6d01d 34ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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35--max-age=<timestamp>::
36--min-age=<timestamp>::
fdcf39e5 37 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 38endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 39
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40--author=<pattern>::
41--committer=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5 42 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
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43 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
44 expression). With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
45 commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
46 chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
fdcf39e5 47
72fd13f7 48--grep-reflog=<pattern>::
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49 Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
50 match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
51 more than one `--grep-reflog`, commits whose reflog message
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52 matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an
53 error to use this option unless `--walk-reflogs` is in use.
72fd13f7 54
982962ce 55--grep=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5 56 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
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57 matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
58 more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
59 matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
60 `--all-match`).
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61+
62When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes as
63if it is part of the log message.
fdcf39e5 64
7756ba74 65--all-match::
4528aa1a 66 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
a23e3138 67 instead of ones that match at least one.
7756ba74 68
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69-i::
70--regexp-ignore-case::
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71 Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
72 case.
fdcf39e5 73
727b6fc3 74--basic-regexp::
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75 Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
76 this is the default.
77
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78-E::
79--extended-regexp::
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80 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
81 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
82
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83-F::
84--fixed-strings::
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85 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
86 pattern as a regular expression).
87
727b6fc3 88--perl-regexp::
19d6eb41 89 Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.
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90 Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
91
fdcf39e5 92--remove-empty::
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93 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
94
2657420d 95--merges::
6a6ebded 96 Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as `--min-parents=2`.
2657420d 97
fdcf39e5 98--no-merges::
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99 Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
100 exactly the same as `--max-parents=1`.
101
102--min-parents=<number>::
103--max-parents=<number>::
104--no-min-parents::
105--no-max-parents::
5104d21f 106 Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
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107 commits. In particular, `--max-parents=1` is the same as `--no-merges`,
108 `--min-parents=2` is the same as `--merges`. `--max-parents=0`
109 gives all root commits and `--min-parents=3` all octopus merges.
110+
111`--no-min-parents` and `--no-max-parents` reset these limits (to no limit)
112again. Equivalent forms are `--min-parents=0` (any commit has 0 or more
113parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
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114
115--first-parent::
116 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
117 commit. This option can give a better overview when
118 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
119 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
120 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
121 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
122 brought in to your history by such a merge.
123
124--not::
fdcf39e5 125 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
4528aa1a 126 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next `--not`.
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127
128--all::
cc1b8d8b 129 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 130 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 131
62b4698e 132--branches[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 133 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 134 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 135 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
e34bb2e7 136 '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 137
62b4698e 138--tags[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 139 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 140 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
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141 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
142 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 143
62b4698e 144--remotes[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 145 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 146 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 147 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
e34bb2e7 148 If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 149
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150--glob=<glob-pattern>::
151 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
d08bae7e 152 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
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153 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
154 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
d08bae7e 155
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156--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
157
158 Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
159 `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
160 consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
161 up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
162 `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
163 accumlated patterns).
164+
165The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
166`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
167respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
168or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
169explicitly.
170
cc243c3c 171--ignore-missing::
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172 Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
173 the bad input was not given.
d08bae7e 174
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175ifndef::git-rev-list[]
176--bisect::
cc1b8d8b 177 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 178 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 179 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
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180 line.
181endif::git-rev-list[]
182
fdcf39e5 183--stdin::
fdcf39e5 184 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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185 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
186 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
187 result.
fdcf39e5 188
8b3dce56 189ifdef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 190--quiet::
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191 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
192 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
193 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
194 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
4528aa1a 195 to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 196endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 197
cb56e309 198--cherry-mark::
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199 Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
200 with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
201
fdcf39e5 202--cherry-pick::
fdcf39e5 203 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
4528aa1a 204 another commit on the ``other side'' when the set of
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205 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
206+
207For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
208to list all commits on only one side of them is with
3add01bb 209`--left-right` (see the example below in the description of
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210the `--left-right` option). However, it shows the commits that were
211cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, ``3rd on b'' may be
212cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
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213excluded from the output.
214
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215--left-only::
216--right-only::
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217 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
218 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
219 `--left-right`.
220+
221For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
222commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
6cf378f0 223`A`. In other words, this lists the `+` commits from `git cherry A B`.
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224More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
225list.
226
94f605ec 227--cherry::
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228 A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
229 limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
230 have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
231 `git log --cherry upstream...mybranch`, similar to
232 `git cherry upstream mybranch`.
233
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234-g::
235--walk-reflogs::
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236 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
237 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
238 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
239 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
a58088ab 240 and 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
fdcf39e5 241+
4528aa1a 242With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
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243this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
244taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
245used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 246'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
4528aa1a 247instead. Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
fdcf39e5 248prefixed with this information on the same line.
4528aa1a 249This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
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250See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
251
252--merge::
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253 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
254 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
255
256--boundary::
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257 Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
258 prefixed with `-`.
fdcf39e5 259
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260ifdef::git-rev-list[]
261--use-bitmap-index::
262
263 Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
264 one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
265 trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
266endif::git-rev-list[]
267
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268--
269
270History Simplification
271~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
272
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273Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
274commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
275'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
276is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
277
278The following options select the commits to be shown:
279
280<paths>::
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281 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
282
283--simplify-by-decoration::
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284 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
285
286Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
287
288The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
289
290Default mode::
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291 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
292 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
293 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
294 with the same content)
295
296--full-history::
df6b0cad 297 Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
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298
299--dense::
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300 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
301 meaningful history.
302
303--sparse::
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304 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
305
306--simplify-merges::
4528aa1a 307 Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
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308 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
309 commits contributing to this merge.
310
57456ef4 311--ancestry-path::
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312 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
313 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
314 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
315 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
316 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
317
7bc2508b 318A more detailed explanation follows.
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319
320Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
321that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
322filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
323
324In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
325illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
326that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
327-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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328 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
329 / / / / / /
330 I B C D E Y
331 \ / / / / /
332 `-------------' X
70d9895e 333-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 334The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
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335each merge. The commits are:
336
337* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
4528aa1a 338 ``asdf'', and a file `quux` exists with contents ``quux''. Initial
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339 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
340
4528aa1a 341* In `A`, `foo` contains just ``foo''.
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342
343* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
344 hence TREESAME to all parents.
345
4528aa1a 346* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to ``foobar'',
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347 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
348
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349* `D` sets `foo` to ``baz''. Its merge `O` combines the strings from
350 `N` and `D` to ``foobarbaz''; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
70d9895e 351
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352* `E` changes `quux` to ``xyzzy'', and its merge `P` combines the
353 strings to ``quux xyzzy''. `P` is TREESAME to `O`, but not to `E`.
70d9895e 354
17b83d71 355* `X` is an independent root commit that added a new file `side`, and `Y`
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356 modified it. `Y` is TREESAME to `X`. Its merge `Q` added `side` to `P`, and
357 `Q` is TREESAME to `P`, but not to `Y`.
358
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359`rev-list` walks backwards through history, including or excluding
360commits based on whether `--full-history` and/or parent rewriting
361(via `--parents` or `--children`) are used. The following settings
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362are available.
363
364Default mode::
70d9895e 365 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
4528aa1a 366 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below). If the
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367 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
368 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
369 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
370 parents.
371+
372This results in:
373+
374-----------------------------------------------------------------------
375 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 376 / / /
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377 I---------D
378-----------------------------------------------------------------------
379+
380Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
381available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
382considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
383empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
384+
4528aa1a 385Parent/child relations are only visible with `--parents`, but that does
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386not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
387parent lines.
388
389--full-history without parent rewriting::
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390 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
391 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
392 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
393 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
394 the example, we get
395+
396-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 397 I A B N D O P Q
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398-----------------------------------------------------------------------
399+
d0af663e 400`M` was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. `E`,
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401`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
402do not appear.
403+
404Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
405about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
406them disconnected.
407
408--full-history with parent rewriting::
70d9895e 409 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
4528aa1a 410 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below).
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411+
412Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
413Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
414themselves. This results in
415+
416-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 417 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
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418 / / / / /
419 I B / D /
420 \ / / / /
421 `-------------'
422-----------------------------------------------------------------------
423+
4528aa1a 424Compare to `--full-history` without rewriting above. Note that `E`
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425was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
426rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
143f1eaf 427`N`, and `X`, `Y` and `Q`.
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428
429In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
430affects inclusion:
431
3240240f 432--dense::
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433 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
434 to any parent.
435
3240240f 436--sparse::
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437 All commits that are walked are included.
438+
4528aa1a 439Note that without `--full-history`, this still simplifies merges: if
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440one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
441sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 442
d266a988 443--simplify-merges::
d266a988 444 First, build a history graph in the same way that
4528aa1a 445 `--full-history` with parent rewriting does (see above).
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446+
447Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
448history according to the following rules:
449+
450--
451* Set `C'` to `C`.
452+
453* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
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454 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
455 root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
456 to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
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457+
458* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
459 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
460 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
461--
462+
463The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
4528aa1a 464`--full-history` with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
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465+
466-----------------------------------------------------------------------
467 .-A---M---N---O
468 / / /
469 I B D
470 \ / /
471 `---------'
472-----------------------------------------------------------------------
473+
19d6eb41 474Note the major differences in `N`, `P`, and `Q` over `--full-history`:
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475+
476--
477* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
478 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
479+
480* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
481 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
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482+
483* `Q`'s parent list had `Y` simplified to `X`. `X` was then removed, because it
484 was a TREESAME root. `Q` was then removed completely, because it had one
485 parent and is TREESAME.
d266a988 486--
fdcf39e5 487
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488Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
489
490--ancestry-path::
57456ef4 491 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
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492 chain between the ``from'' and ``to'' commits in the given commit
493 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the ``to''
19d6eb41 494 commit and descendants of the ``from'' commit.
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495+
496As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
497+
498-----------------------------------------------------------------------
499 D---E-------F
500 / \ \
501 B---C---G---H---I---J
502 / \
503 A-------K---------------L--M
504-----------------------------------------------------------------------
505+
506A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
507but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
508what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
4528aa1a 509that ``what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`''. The result in this
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510example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
511of course).
512+
513When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
514bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
515only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
4528aa1a 516excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the `--ancestry-path`
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517option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
518+
519-----------------------------------------------------------------------
520 E-------F
521 \ \
522 G---H---I---J
523 \
524 L--M
525-----------------------------------------------------------------------
526
4528aa1a 527The `--simplify-by-decoration` option allows you to view only the
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528big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
529that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
530(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
531above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
532contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
533commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
534
fdcf39e5 535ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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536Bisection Helpers
537~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
538
fdcf39e5 539--bisect::
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540 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
541 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
542 `refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
543 exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
544 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
545 are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
546+
fdcf39e5 547-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 548 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5 549-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4528aa1a 550+
fdcf39e5 551outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
4528aa1a 552+
fdcf39e5 553-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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554 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
555 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5 556-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4528aa1a 557+
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558would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
559introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
560generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
561one.
562
563--bisect-vars::
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564 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
565 `refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
566 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
567 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
568 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
569 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
570 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
571 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
572 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
573 `bisect_all`.
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574
575--bisect-all::
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576 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
577 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
578 commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
579 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
580 `--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 581+
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582This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
583test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
584may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 585+
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586This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
587after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
588`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
589endif::git-rev-list[]
590
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591
592Commit Ordering
593~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
594
595By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
596
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597--date-order::
598 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
599 otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
fdcf39e5 600
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601--author-date-order::
602 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
603 otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
604
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605--topo-order::
606 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
607 avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
608 intermixed.
609+
610For example, in a commit history like this:
611+
612----------------------------------------------------------------
fdcf39e5 613
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614 ---1----2----4----7
615 \ \
616 3----5----6----8---
fdcf39e5 617
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618----------------------------------------------------------------
619+
620where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
621rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
622timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
623+
624With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
6253 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
626avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
627together.
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628
629--reverse::
fdcf39e5 630 Output the commits in reverse order.
4528aa1a 631 Cannot be combined with `--walk-reflogs`.
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632
633Object Traversal
634~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
635
2de9b711 636These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
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637
638--objects::
fdcf39e5 639 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
4528aa1a 640 commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
fdcf39e5 641 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
4528aa1a 642 object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
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643
644--objects-edge::
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645 Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
646 commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
647 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build ``thin'' pack, which records
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648 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
649 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
650
651--unpacked::
4528aa1a 652 Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
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653 in packs.
654
ca92e59e 655--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
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656 Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
657 This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
19d6eb41 658 `unsorted` is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
4528aa1a 659 given on the command line. Otherwise (if `sorted` or no argument
19d6eb41 660 was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
ca92e59e 661 by commit time.
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662
663--do-walk::
4528aa1a 664 Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
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665
666Commit Formatting
667~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
668
669ifdef::git-rev-list[]
670Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
671more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
672linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
673endif::git-rev-list[]
674
675include::pretty-options.txt[]
676
677--relative-date::
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678 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
679
680--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
f98fd436 681 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
4528aa1a 682 as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
19d6eb41 683 value for the log command's `--date` option.
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684+
685`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
4528aa1a 686e.g. ``2 hours ago''.
f98fd436 687+
0ffa154b 688`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local time zone.
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689+
690`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
691+
692`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
19d6eb41 693format, often found in email messages.
f98fd436 694+
19d6eb41 695`--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
f98fd436 696+
2de9b711 697`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
f98fd436 698+
0ffa154b 699`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original time zone
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700(either committer's or author's).
701
702ifdef::git-rev-list[]
703--header::
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704 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
705 separated with a NUL character.
706endif::git-rev-list[]
707
708--parents::
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709 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
710 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
711
712--children::
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713 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
714 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
715
716ifdef::git-rev-list[]
717--timestamp::
718 Print the raw commit timestamp.
719endif::git-rev-list[]
720
721--left-right::
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722 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
723 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
724 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
725 commits are prefixed with `-`.
726+
727For example, if you have this topology:
728+
729-----------------------------------------------------------------------
730 y---b---b branch B
731 / \ /
732 / .
733 / / \
734 o---x---a---a branch A
735-----------------------------------------------------------------------
736+
737you would get an output like this:
738+
739-----------------------------------------------------------------------
740 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
741
742 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
743 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
744 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
745 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
746 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
747 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
748-----------------------------------------------------------------------
749
750--graph::
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751 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
752 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
753 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
754 to be drawn properly.
755+
756This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
757+
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758This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
759`--date-order` option may also be specified.
f98fd436 760
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761--show-linear-break[=<barrier>]::
762 When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
763 which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
764 do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
765 in between them in that case. If `<barrier>` is specified, it
766 is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
767
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768ifdef::git-rev-list[]
769--count::
770 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
771 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
4528aa1a 772 with `--left-right`, instead print the counts for left and
b388e14b 773 right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
4528aa1a 774 `--cherry-mark`, omit patch equivalent commits from these
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775 counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
776 by a tab.
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777endif::git-rev-list[]
778
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779ifndef::git-rev-list[]
780Diff Formatting
781~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
782
19d6eb41 783Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
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784Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
785options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
786
787-c::
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788 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
789 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
790 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
791 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
792 which were modified from all parents.
793
794--cc::
4528aa1a 795 This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
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796 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
797 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
798 one of them without modification.
799
800-m::
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801 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
802 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
803 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
4528aa1a 804 the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
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805 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
806 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
807
808-r::
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809 Show recursive diffs.
810
811-t::
4528aa1a 812 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
f98fd436 813endif::git-rev-list[]