Documentation: avoid stray backslash in user manual
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
e9fcd1e2 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
e3163c75 14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
f028cdae 44`HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[1]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 72 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
cc1b8d8b 76 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
73f03627 77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
9f67fee2 85-n::
3240240f 86--dry-run::
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87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
88
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89--porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
93
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94--delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
97
3240240f 98--tags::
cc1b8d8b 99 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
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100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
102
3240240f 103--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 104--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
109
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110-f::
111--force::
f0fff36e 112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 116
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117--repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
0b444cdb 119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
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120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
125+
126--------------------------
127git push public #1
128git push --repo=public #2
129--------------------------
130+
131is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
132only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
0b444cdb 133useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
dc36f265 134
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135-u::
136--set-upstream::
137 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
138 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
139 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
140 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
141
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142--thin::
143--no-thin::
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144 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
145 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
146 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
147 \--thin.
dc36f265 148
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149-q::
150--quiet::
151 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
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152 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
153 error stream.
989119d9 154
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155-v::
156--verbose::
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157 Run verbosely.
158
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159--progress::
160 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
161 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
162 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
163 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
989119d9 164
37ba0561 165include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 166
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167OUTPUT
168------
169
170The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
171section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
172locally or via ssh).
173
174The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
175representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
176
177-------------------------------
178 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
179-------------------------------
180
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181If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
182
183-------------------------------
184 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
185-------------------------------
186
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187The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
188option is used.
189
066a5268 190flag::
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191 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
192(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
193`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
194`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
195`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
196`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
197`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
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198
199summary::
200 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
201 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
202 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
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203 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
204+
205For a failed update, more details are given:
206+
207--
208rejected::
209 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
210 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
211
212remote rejected::
213 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
214 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
215 of the following safety options in effect:
216 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
217 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
218 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
219 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
220
221remote failure::
222 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
223 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
224 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
225--
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226
227from::
228 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
229 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
230 name of the local ref is omitted.
231
232to::
233 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
234 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
235
236reason::
237 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
238 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
239 failure is described.
bb9fca80 240
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241Note about fast-forwards
242------------------------
243
244When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
245point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
246fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
247
248In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
249commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
250builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
251
252In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
253suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
254a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
255leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
256
257----------------
258
259 B
260 /
261 ---X---A
262
263----------------
264
265Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
266back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
267
268The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
269commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
270
271But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
272now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
273so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
274will now start building on top of B.
275
276The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
277to prevent such loss of history.
278
279If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
280the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
281history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
282by both parties, and push the result back.
283
284You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
285the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
286and B.
287
288----------------
289
290 B---C
291 / /
292 ---X---A
293
294----------------
295
296Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
297push will be accepted.
298
299Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
300with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
301create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
302A.
303
304----------------
305
306 B D
307 / /
308 ---X---A
309
310----------------
311
312Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
313accepted.
314
315There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
316rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
317pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
318A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
319commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
320forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
321you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
322(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
323overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
324a case where you do mean to lose history.
325
326
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327Examples
328--------
329
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330git push::
331 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
332 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
333 configured for the current branch).
334
335git push origin::
336 Without additional configuration, works like
337 `git push origin :`.
338+
339The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
340configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
341+
342For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
343use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
344the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
345`git push origin`.
346
347git push origin :::
348 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
349 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
350 description of "matching" branches.
351
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352git push origin master::
353 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
354 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
355 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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356 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
357 created.
bb9fca80 358
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359git push origin HEAD::
360 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
361 remote.
bb9fca80 362
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363git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
364 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
365 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
366 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
367 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 368
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369git push origin HEAD:master::
370 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
371 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
372 branch without thinking about its local name.
373
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374git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
375 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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376 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
377 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
378 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
379 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 380
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381git push origin :experimental::
382 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
383 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
384
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385git push origin {plus}dev:master::
386 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 387 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 388 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 389 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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390+
391----
392 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
393 \
394 X---Y---Z dev
395----
396+
397The above command would change the origin repository to
398+
399----
400 A---B (unnamed branch)
401 /
402 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
403----
404+
405Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
406and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
407a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
408
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410Author
411------
59eb68aa 412Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
25fb6290 413by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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414
415Documentation
416--------------
417Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
418
419GIT
420---
9e1f0a85 421Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite