Git 2.7.2
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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9e1f0a85 1git(1)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
44e1e4d6 12'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
68e4b552 13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
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14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
68e4b552 16 <command> [<args>]
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17
18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
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20Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22and full access to internals.
23
6998e4db 24See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
673151a9 25linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
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26commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27in-depth introduction.
cb22bc44 28
7687ae98 29After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
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30page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
06ab60c0 32manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
4514ad4f 33
2de9b711 34Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
7687ae98 35can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
34b604af 36
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37ifdef::stalenotes[]
38[NOTE]
39============
26cfcfbf 40
2ff3f61a 41You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
06ab60c0 42unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
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43branch of the `git.git` repository.
44Documentation for older releases are available here:
43a8e4fe 45
326e5bc9 46* link:v2.7.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.2]
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47
48* release notes for
326e5bc9 49 link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
a08595f7 50 link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
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51 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
52
833e4825 53* link:v2.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.5]
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54
55* release notes for
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61 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
62
24358560 63* link:v2.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.4]
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64
65* release notes for
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a17c56c0 71
a2558fb8 72* link:v2.4.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.10]
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73
74* release notes for
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85 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
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88
89* release notes for
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100 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
101
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103
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108 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
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111
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141* release notes for
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361 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
0a53e9dd 366
441b40d8 367* link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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368
369* release notes for
761e742d
NP
370 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
371 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
372 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
374 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
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375
376* release notes for
761e742d
NP
377 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
378 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
379 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
380 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
381 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
382 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
a95148de 383
621f1b4b 384* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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385
386* release notes for
761e742d
NP
387 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
388 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
389 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
390 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
8104ebfe 391
efe05b01 392* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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393
394* release notes for
761e742d
NP
395 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
396 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
397 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
398 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
399 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
401 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
ea02eef0 402
efe05b01 403* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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404
405* release notes for
761e742d
NP
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
e449f105 413
efe05b01 414* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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415
416* release notes for
761e742d
NP
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
1d2375dd 424
efe05b01 425* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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426
427* release notes for
761e742d
NP
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
6ce8e44a 436
e708af6e 437* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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438
439* release notes for
761e742d
NP
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
b6e4db6a 449
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450* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
451
aba170cd 452* release notes for
761e742d
NP
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
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459
460* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
461
462* release notes for
761e742d
NP
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
465 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
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470
471* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
472
aba170cd 473* release notes for
761e742d
NP
474 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
478 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
479 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
480 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
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481
482* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
483 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
484 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
485 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
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486
487============
488
489endif::stalenotes[]
490
cb22bc44
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491OPTIONS
492-------
493--version::
2de9b711 494 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
cb22bc44
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495
496--help::
a87cd02c 497 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
0f6f195b 498 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
2de9b711 499 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
0f6f195b 500 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
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501+
502Other options are available to control how the manual page is
5162e697 503displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
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504because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
505help ...`.
cb22bc44 506
44e1e4d6
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507-C <path>::
508 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
509 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
510 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
511 <path>`.
512+
513This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
514`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
515made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
516example the following invocations are equivalent:
517
518 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
519 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
520
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521-c <name>=<value>::
522 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
523 given will override values from configuration files.
524 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
525 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
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526+
527Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
528`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
529config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
530foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
8b1fa778 531
62b4698e 532--exec-path[=<path>]::
2de9b711 533 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
cb22bc44 534 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
56992f76 535 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
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536 the current setting and then exit.
537
89a56bfb 538--html-path::
2de9b711 539 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
239b5ed9 540 documentation is installed and exit.
89a56bfb 541
f2dd8c37 542--man-path::
239b5ed9 543 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
2de9b711 544 this version of Git and exit.
f2dd8c37
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545
546--info-path::
239b5ed9 547 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
2de9b711 548 version of Git are installed and exit.
89a56bfb 549
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550-p::
551--paginate::
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552 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
553 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
554 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
555 below).
6acbcb92 556
463a849d 557--no-pager::
2de9b711 558 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
463a849d 559
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560--git-dir=<path>::
561 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
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562 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
563 path or relative path to current working directory.
6acbcb92 564
892c41b9 565--work-tree=<path>::
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566 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
567 or a path relative to the current working directory.
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568 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
569 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
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570 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
571 more detailed discussion).
892c41b9 572
d49483f0 573--namespace=<path>::
2de9b711 574 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
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575 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
576 variable.
577
6acbcb92 578--bare::
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579 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
580 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
581 directory.
582
b0fa7ab5 583--no-replace-objects::
2de9b711 584 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
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585 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
586
823ab40f 587--literal-pathspecs::
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588 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
589 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
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590 variable to `1`.
591
6fb02165 592--glob-pathspecs::
bd30c2e4
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593 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
594 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
595 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
596 magic ":(literal)"
597
6fb02165 598--noglob-pathspecs::
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599 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
600 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
601 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
602 magic ":(glob)"
9755afbd 603
6fb02165 604--icase-pathspecs::
93d93537
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605 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
606 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
9755afbd 607
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608GIT COMMANDS
609------------
9755afbd 610
2de9b711 611We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
23091e95 612("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 613
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614High-level commands (porcelain)
615-------------------------------
616
617We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
618ancillary user utilities.
619
620Main porcelain commands
621~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 622
377e8139 623include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
e31bb3bb 624
90933efb 625Ancillary Commands
23091e95 626~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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627Manipulators:
628
377e8139 629include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
204ee6a9 630
90933efb 631Interrogators:
204ee6a9 632
377e8139 633include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
7fc9d69f 634
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635
636Interacting with Others
637~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
638
639These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
640people via patch over e-mail.
641
642include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
643
644
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645Low-level commands (plumbing)
646-----------------------------
647
2de9b711 648Although Git includes its
b1f33d62
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649own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
650development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
5162e697
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651might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
652linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
b1f33d62 653
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654The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
655to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
656than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
657primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
658on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
659end user experience.
660
661The following description divides
662the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
b1f33d62
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663the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
664compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
665repositories.
666
89bf2077 667
b1f33d62
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668Manipulation commands
669~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
b1f33d62 670
377e8139 671include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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672
673
674Interrogation commands
675~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
676
377e8139 677include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
b1f33d62
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678
679In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
680the working tree.
681
682
683Synching repositories
684~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
685
377e8139 686include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
b1f33d62 687
57f6ec02 688The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
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689typically do not use them directly.
690
691include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
692
693
694Internal helper commands
695~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
696
697These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
698users typically do not use them directly.
699
700include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
701
b1f33d62 702
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703Configuration Mechanism
704-----------------------
705
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706Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
707repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
708like this:
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709
710------------
711#
2fa090b6 712# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
5773c9f2
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713#
714
715; core variables
716[core]
717 ; Don't trust file modes
718 filemode = false
719
720; user identity
721[user]
722 name = "Junio C Hamano"
c0179c0d 723 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
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724
725------------
726
727Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
06300d97 728their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
c0179c0d 729list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
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730
731
6c84e2e0 732Identifier Terminology
2cf565c5
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733----------------------
734<object>::
2fa090b6 735 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
2cf565c5
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736
737<blob>::
2fa090b6 738 Indicates a blob object name.
2cf565c5
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739
740<tree>::
2fa090b6 741 Indicates a tree object name.
2cf565c5
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742
743<commit>::
2fa090b6 744 Indicates a commit object name.
2cf565c5
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745
746<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 747 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
6c84e2e0
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748 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
749 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
750 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
2cf565c5 751
043d7605
TT
752<commit-ish>::
753 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
754 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
755 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
756 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
757
2cf565c5
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758<type>::
759 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 760 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
2cf565c5
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761
762<file>::
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763 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
764 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 765
c1bdacf9
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766Symbolic Identifiers
767--------------------
2de9b711 768Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 769symbolic notation:
c1bdacf9
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770
771HEAD::
0abcfbff 772 indicates the head of the current branch.
2fa090b6 773
c1bdacf9 774<tag>::
2fa090b6 775 a valid tag 'name'
0abcfbff 776 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
2fa090b6 777
c1bdacf9 778<head>::
2fa090b6 779 a valid head 'name'
0abcfbff 780 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
2fa090b6 781
d47107d8 782For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
9d83e382 783"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
d47107d8 784
c1bdacf9
DG
785
786File/Directory Structure
787------------------------
c1bdacf9 788
6998e4db 789Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
c1bdacf9 790
6998e4db 791Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
6250ad1e 792
c1bdacf9 793Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 794`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 795
a1d4aa74 796
2cf565c5
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797Terminology
798-----------
6998e4db 799Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
2cf565c5
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800
801
802Environment Variables
803---------------------
2de9b711 804Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
2cf565c5 805
2de9b711 806The Git Repository
c1bdacf9 807~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2de9b711 808These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
c1bdacf9 809is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
f25b98e6 810Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
c1bdacf9
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811
812'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
813 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
5f3aa197
LS
814 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
815 is used.
c1bdacf9 816
136347d7
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817'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
818 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
819 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
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820 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
821 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
136347d7 822
c1bdacf9
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823'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
824 If the object storage directory is specified via this
825 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
826 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
827 directory is used.
828
829'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
2de9b711 830 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
c1bdacf9 831 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
80ba074f 832 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
2de9b711 833 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
80ba074f 834 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
c1bdacf9
DG
835
836'GIT_DIR'::
2fa090b6
JH
837 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
838 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
839 for the base of the repository.
75940a00 840 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
c1bdacf9 841
892c41b9 842'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
a758a349 843 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
06ab60c0 844 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
892c41b9
ML
845 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
846
d49483f0 847'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
2de9b711 848 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
d49483f0
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849 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
850
0454dd93 851'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
7ec30aaa 852 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
3e07d268 853 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
7ec30aaa
MH
854 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
855 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
856 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
857 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
858 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
859 might be present in order to compare them with the current
860 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
861 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
862 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
863 e.g.,
864 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
0454dd93 865
cf87463e 866'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
e6405517 867 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
2de9b711 868 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
e6405517
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869 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
870 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
2de9b711 871 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
cf87463e
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872 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
873 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
874 command line.
8030e442 875
c7b3a3d2
NTND
876'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
877 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
878 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
879 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
529fef20 880 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
1eaca7a5 881 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
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NTND
882 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
883 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
884
2de9b711 885Git Commits
c1bdacf9
DG
886~~~~~~~~~~~
887'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
888'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
889'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
890'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
891'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
4e58bf97 892'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
28a94f88 893'EMAIL'::
5162e697 894 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
c1bdacf9 895
2de9b711 896Git Diffs
c1bdacf9 897~~~~~~~~~
d81ed1b5 898'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
fde97d8a
SE
899 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
900 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
901 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
2de9b711 902 value passed on the Git diff command line.
fde97d8a 903
d81ed1b5 904'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
fde97d8a
SE
905 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
906 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
907 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
908 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
909
910 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
911+
912where:
913
914 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
915 contents of <old|new>,
d5fa1f1a 916 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
fde97d8a 917 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
fde97d8a
SE
918+
919The file parameters can point at the user's working file
920(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
921when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
922index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
923temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
924+
925For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
926parameter, <path>.
ee7fb0b1
ZK
927+
928For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
929'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
930
931'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
932 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
933
934'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
935 The total number of paths.
2cf565c5 936
575ba9d6
ML
937other
938~~~~~
dbddb714
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939'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
940 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
941 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
5162e697 942 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
dbddb714 943
c27d205a 944'GIT_PAGER'::
a7738c77 945 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
2de9b711 946 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
ab54cd6c
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947 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
948 linkgit:git-config[1].
c27d205a 949
36384c97
RSM
950'GIT_EDITOR'::
951 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
2de9b711 952 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
36384c97
RSM
953 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
954 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
955
d5538b41 956'GIT_SSH'::
39942766
TQ
957'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
958 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
959 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
960 when they need to connect to a remote system.
961 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
962 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
963 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
964 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
965 something other than the default SSH port.
d5538b41 966+
39942766
TQ
967`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
968by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
969`$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
970(which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
971needed).
d5538b41
SP
972+
973Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
974personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
975for further details.
976
453842c9 977'GIT_ASKPASS'::
2de9b711 978 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
453842c9 979 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
06ab60c0 980 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
da0005b8 981 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
453842c9
KF
982 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
983
e652c0eb
JK
984'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
985 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
986 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
987
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988'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
989 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
990 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
991 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
992 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
993 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
994 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
995
06f59e9f
TT
996'GIT_FLUSH'::
997 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
0b444cdb 998 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
627a8b8d 999 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
f1ed7fea
AS
1000 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1001 flushed. If this
06f59e9f
TT
1002 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1003 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
2de9b711 1004 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
06f59e9f
TT
1005 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1006
575ba9d6 1007'GIT_TRACE'::
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KB
1008 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1009 command execution and external command execution.
1010+
1011If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1012is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1013stderr.
1014+
1015If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1016and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1017value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1018trace messages into this file descriptor.
1019+
1020Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1021(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1022as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1023into it.
1024+
1025Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1026"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
575ba9d6 1027
b12ca963 1028'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
67dc598e 1029 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
b12ca963
NTND
1030 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1031 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1032 pack-related performance problems.
67dc598e 1033 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
b12ca963 1034
1dd278ce 1035'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
eb9250df
KB
1036 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1037 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1038 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
32359838 1039 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
eb9250df
KB
1040 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1041
32359838
JK
1042'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1043 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1044 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1045 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1046 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1047 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1048 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1049+
1050Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1051of clones and fetches.
1052
578da039
KB
1053'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1054 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1055 time of each Git command.
1056 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1057
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KB
1058'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1059 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1060 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1061 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1062
1063'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1064 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1065 cloning of shallow repositories.
1066 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1dd278ce 1067
6dedd800 1068'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
2de9b711 1069 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
823ab40f
JK
1070 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1071 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1072 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1073 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
2de9b711 1074 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
823ab40f
JK
1075 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1076
6dedd800 1077'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1078 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1079 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1080
6dedd800 1081'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
bd30c2e4
NTND
1082 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1083 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1084
6dedd800 1085'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
93d93537
NTND
1086 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1087 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1088
c3e2d189
JH
1089'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1090 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1091 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1092 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1093 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1094 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1095 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1096 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1097 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1098
6dedd800 1099'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
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JK
1100 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1101 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1102 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1103 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1104 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1105 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1106 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1107 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1108 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1109
6dedd800 1110'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
a5adaced
JK
1111 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1112 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1113 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1114 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1115 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1116 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1117 currently used by git are:
1118
1119 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1120 or local paths)
1121
1122 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1123 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1124
1125 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1126 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1127
1128 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1129
1130 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1131 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1132 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1133
1134 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1135 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
a5adaced 1136
823ab40f 1137
8db9307c
JH
1138Discussion[[Discussion]]
1139------------------------
40dac517
BF
1140
1141More detail on the following is available from the
2de9b711 1142link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
6998e4db 1143user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
40dac517 1144
2de9b711 1145A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
40dac517
BF
1146subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1147things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1148of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1149contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1150as tags and branch heads.
1151
1152The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1153hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
02ff6250 1154directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
40dac517
BF
1155and some number of parent commits.
1156
1157The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1158"version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1159represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1160parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1161
d5fa1f1a 1162All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
40dac517
BF
1163written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1164The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1165just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1166purpose.
1167
1168When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1169efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1170
1171Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
d5fa1f1a
TA
1172may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1173with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1174recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
40dac517
BF
1175tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1176`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1177
1178The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1179path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1180the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1181attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1182corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1183working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1184be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1185content stored in the index.
1186
1187The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1188for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1189unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
6c84e2e0 1190
7687ae98
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1191FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1192---------------------
1193
1194See the references in the "description" section to get started
2de9b711 1195using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
7687ae98
JH
1196for a first-time user.
1197
2de9b711 1198The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
7687ae98 1199user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
2de9b711 1200introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
7687ae98
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1201
1202See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1203
1204See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1205examples.
1206
1207The internals are documented in the
48a8c26c 1208link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
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1209
1210Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1211read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1212
1213
cb22bc44
AE
1214Authors
1215-------
48bb914e 1216Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
2de9b711 1217C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
405869d0 1218<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
6ecc01f2
JH
1219gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1220
1221If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
d8f708f8
JK
1222output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1223the authors for specific parts of the project.
2cf565c5 1224
c97ca277
JH
1225Reporting Bugs
1226--------------
1227
1228Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1229development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1230subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1231
497c8331
CC
1232SEE ALSO
1233--------
1234linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
673151a9 1235linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
497c8331 1236linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
801a011d
TR
1237linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1238linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
497c8331 1239
2cf565c5
DG
1240GIT
1241---
9e1f0a85 1242Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite