git-gui po/README: Guide to translators
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1Localizing git-gui for your language
2====================================
3
4This short note is to help you, who reads and writes English and your
5own language, help us getting git-gui localized for more languages. It
6does not try to be a comprehensive manual of GNU gettext, which is the
7i18n framework we use, but tries to help you get started by covering the
8basics and how it is used in this project.
9
101. Getting started.
11
12You would first need to have a working "git". Your distribution may
13have it as "git-core" package (do not get "GNU Interactive Tools" --
14that is a different "git"). You would also need GNU gettext toolchain
15to test the resulting translation out. Although you can work on message
16translation files with a regular text editor, it is a good idea to have
17specialized so-called "po file editors" (e.g. emacs po-mode, KBabel,
18poedit, GTranslator --- any of them would work well). Please install
19them.
20
21You would then need to clone the git-gui internationalization project
22repository, so that you can work on it:
23
24 $ git clone mob@repo.or.cz:/srv/git/git-gui/git-gui-i18n.git/
25 $ cd git-gui-i18n
26 $ git checkout --track -b mob origin/mob
27 $ git config remote.origin.push mob
28
29The "git checkout" command creates a 'mob' branch from upstream's
30corresponding branch and makes it your current branch. You will be
31working on this branch.
32
33The "git config" command records in your repository configuration file
34that you would push "mob" branch to the upstream when you say "git
35push".
36
37
382. Starting a new language.
39
40In the git-gui-i18n directory is a po/ subdirectory. It has a
41handful files whose names end with ".po". Is there a file that has
42messages in your language?
43
44If you do not know what your language should be named, you need to find
45it. This currently follows ISO 639-1 two letter codes:
46
47 http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php
48
49For example, if you are preparing a translation for Afrikaans, the
50language code is "af". If there already is a translation for your
51language, you do not have to perform any step in this section, but keep
52reading, because we are covering the basics.
53
54If you did not find your language, you would need to start one yourself.
55Copy po/git-gui.pot file to po/af.po (replace "af" with the code for
56your language). Edit the first several lines to match existing *.po
57files to make it clear this is a translation table for git-gui project,
58and you are the primary translator. The result of your editing would
59look something like this:
60
61 # Translation of git-gui to Afrikaans
62 # Copyright (C) 2007 Shawn Pearce
63 # This file is distributed under the same license as the git-gui package.
64 # YOUR NAME <YOUR@E-MAIL.ADDRESS>, 2007.
65 #
66 #, fuzzy
67 msgid ""
68 msgstr ""
69 "Project-Id-Version: git-gui\n"
70 "Report-Msgid-Bugs-To: \n"
71 "POT-Creation-Date: 2007-07-24 22:19+0300\n"
72 "PO-Revision-Date: 2007-07-25 18:00+0900\n"
73 "Last-Translator: YOUR NAME <YOUR@E-MAIL.ADDRESS>\n"
74 "Language-Team: Afrikaans\n"
75 "MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
76 "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
77 "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
78
79You will find many pairs of a "msgid" line followed by a "msgstr" line.
80These pairs define how messages in git-gui application are translated to
81your language. Your primarily job is to fill in the empty double quote
82pairs on msgstr lines with the translation of the strings on their
83matching msgid lines. A few tips:
84
85 - Control characters, such as newlines, are written in backslash
86 sequence similar to string literals in the C programming language.
87 When the string given on a msgid line has such a backslash sequence,
88 you would typically want to have corresponding ones in the string on
89 your msgstr line.
90
91 - Often the messages being translated are format strings given to
92 "printf()"-like functions. Make sure "%s", "%d", and "%%" in your
93 translated messages match the original.
94
95 When you have to change the order of words, you can add "<number>\$"
96 between '%' and the conversion ('s', 'd', etc.) to say "<number>-th
97 parameter to the format string is used at this point". For example,
98 if the original message is like this:
99
100 "Length is %d, Weight is %d"
101
102 and if for whatever reason your translation needs to say weight first
103 and then length, you can say something like:
104
105 "WEIGHT IS %2\$d, LENGTH IS %1\$d"
106
107 The reason you need a backslash before dollar sign is because
108 this is a double quoted string in Tcl language, and without
109 it the letter introduces a variable interpolation, which you
110 do not want here.
111
112 - A long message can be split across multiple lines by ending the
113 string with a double quote, and starting another string on the next
114 line with another double quote. They will be concatenated in the
115 result. For example:
116
117 #: lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl:189
118 #, tcl-format
119 msgid ""
120 "One or more of the merge tests failed because you have not fetched the "
121 "necessary commits. Try fetching from %s first."
122 msgstr ""
123 "HERE YOU WILL WRITE YOUR TRANSLATION OF THE ABOVE LONG "
124 "MESSAGE IN YOUR LANGUAGE."
125
126You can test your translation by running "make install", which would
127create po/af.msg file and installs the result, and then running the
128resulting git-gui under your locale:
129
130 $ make install
131 $ LANG=af git-gui
132
133There is a trick to test your translation without first installing, if
134you prefer. First, create this symbolic link in the source tree:
135
136 $ ln -s ../po lib/msgs
137
138After setting up such a symbolic link, you can:
139
140 $ make
141 $ LANG=af ./git-gui.sh
142
143When you are satisfied with your translation, commit your changes, and
144push it back to the 'mob' branch:
145
146 $ edit po/af.po
147 ... be sure to update Last-Translator: and
148 ... PO-Revision-Date: lines.
149 $ git add po/af.po
150 $ git commit -m 'Started Afrikaans translation.'
151 $ git push
152
153
1543. Updating your translation.
155
156There may already be a translation for your language, and you may want
157to contribute an update. This may be because you would want to improve
158the translation of existing messages, or because the git-gui software
159itself was updated and there are new messages that need translation.
160
161In any case, make sure you are up-to-date before starting your work:
162
163 $ git pull
164
165In the former case, you will edit po/af.po (again, replace "af" with
166your language code), and after testing and updating the Last-Translator:
167and PO-Revision-Date: lines, "add/commit/push" as in the previous
168section.
169
170By comparing "POT-Creation-Date:" line in po/git-gui.pot file and
171po/af.po file, you can tell if there are new messages that need to be
172translated. You would need the GNU gettext package to perform this
173step.
174
175 $ msgmerge -U po/af.po po/git-gui.pot
176
177[NEEDSWORK: who is responsible for updating po/git-gui.pot file by
178running xgettext? IIRC, Christian recommended against running it
179nilly-willy because it can become a source of unnecessary merge
180conflicts. Perhaps we should mention something like "
181
182The po/git-gui.pot file is updated by the internationalization
183coordinator from time to time. You _could_ update it yourself, but
184translators are discouraged from doing so because we would want all
185language teams to be working off of the same version of git-gui.pot.
186
187" here?]
188
189This updates po/af.po (again, replace "af" with your language
190code) so that it contains msgid lines (i.e. the original) that
191your translation did not have before. There are a few things to
192watch out for:
193
194 - The original text in English of an older message you already
195 translated might have been changed. You will notice a comment line
196 that begins with "#, fuzzy" in front of such a message. msgmerge
197 tool made its best effort to match your old translation with the
198 message from the updated software, but you may find cases that it
199 matched your old translated message to a new msgid and the pairing
200 does not make any sense -- you would need to fix them, and then
201 remove the "#, fuzzy" line from the message (your fixed translation
202 of the message will not be used before you remove the marker).
203
204 - New messages added to the software will have msgstr lines with empty
205 strings. You would need to translate them.