object.h: centralize object flag allocation
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
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1Commit Limiting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
5special notations explained in the description, additional commit
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6limiting may be applied.
7
8Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
9`--since=<date1>` limits to commits newer than `<date1>`, and using it
10with `--grep=<pattern>` further limits to commits whose log message
11has a line that matches `<pattern>`), unless otherwise noted.
12
13Note that these are applied before commit
14ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
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15
16--
17
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18-<number>::
19-n <number>::
982962ce 20--max-count=<number>::
841d8118 21 Limit the number of commits to output.
fdcf39e5 22
982962ce 23--skip=<number>::
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24 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
25
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26--since=<date>::
27--after=<date>::
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28 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
29
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30--until=<date>::
31--before=<date>::
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32 Show commits older than a specific date.
33
56b6d01d 34ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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35--max-age=<timestamp>::
36--min-age=<timestamp>::
fdcf39e5 37 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 38endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 39
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40--author=<pattern>::
41--committer=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5 42 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
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43 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
44 expression). With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
45 commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
46 chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
fdcf39e5 47
72fd13f7 48--grep-reflog=<pattern>::
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49 Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
50 match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
51 more than one `--grep-reflog`, commits whose reflog message
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52 matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an
53 error to use this option unless `--walk-reflogs` is in use.
72fd13f7 54
982962ce 55--grep=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5 56 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
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57 matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
58 more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
59 matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
60 `--all-match`).
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61+
62When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes as
63if it is part of the log message.
fdcf39e5 64
7756ba74 65--all-match::
4528aa1a 66 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
a23e3138 67 instead of ones that match at least one.
7756ba74 68
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69-i::
70--regexp-ignore-case::
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71 Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
72 case.
fdcf39e5 73
727b6fc3 74--basic-regexp::
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75 Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
76 this is the default.
77
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78-E::
79--extended-regexp::
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80 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
81 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
82
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83-F::
84--fixed-strings::
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85 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
86 pattern as a regular expression).
87
727b6fc3 88--perl-regexp::
19d6eb41 89 Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.
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90 Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
91
fdcf39e5 92--remove-empty::
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93 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
94
2657420d 95--merges::
6a6ebded 96 Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as `--min-parents=2`.
2657420d 97
fdcf39e5 98--no-merges::
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99 Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
100 exactly the same as `--max-parents=1`.
101
102--min-parents=<number>::
103--max-parents=<number>::
104--no-min-parents::
105--no-max-parents::
5104d21f 106 Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
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107 commits. In particular, `--max-parents=1` is the same as `--no-merges`,
108 `--min-parents=2` is the same as `--merges`. `--max-parents=0`
109 gives all root commits and `--min-parents=3` all octopus merges.
110+
111`--no-min-parents` and `--no-max-parents` reset these limits (to no limit)
112again. Equivalent forms are `--min-parents=0` (any commit has 0 or more
113parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
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114
115--first-parent::
116 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
117 commit. This option can give a better overview when
118 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
119 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
120 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
121 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
122 brought in to your history by such a merge.
123
124--not::
fdcf39e5 125 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
4528aa1a 126 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next `--not`.
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127
128--all::
cc1b8d8b 129 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 130 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 131
62b4698e 132--branches[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 133 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 134 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 135 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
e34bb2e7 136 '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 137
62b4698e 138--tags[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 139 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 140 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
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141 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
142 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 143
62b4698e 144--remotes[=<pattern>]::
cc1b8d8b 145 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 146 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 147 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
e34bb2e7 148 If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 149
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150--glob=<glob-pattern>::
151 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
d08bae7e 152 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
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153 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
154 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
d08bae7e 155
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156--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
157
158 Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
159 `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
160 consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
161 up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
162 `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
163 accumlated patterns).
164+
165The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
166`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
167respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
168or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
169explicitly.
170
cc243c3c 171--ignore-missing::
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172 Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
173 the bad input was not given.
d08bae7e 174
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175ifndef::git-rev-list[]
176--bisect::
cc1b8d8b 177 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 178 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 179 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
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180 line.
181endif::git-rev-list[]
182
fdcf39e5 183--stdin::
fdcf39e5 184 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
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185 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
186 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
187 result.
fdcf39e5 188
8b3dce56 189ifdef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 190--quiet::
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191 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
192 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
193 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
194 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
4528aa1a 195 to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 196endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 197
cb56e309 198--cherry-mark::
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199 Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
200 with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
201
fdcf39e5 202--cherry-pick::
fdcf39e5 203 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
4528aa1a 204 another commit on the ``other side'' when the set of
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205 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
206+
207For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
208to list all commits on only one side of them is with
3add01bb 209`--left-right` (see the example below in the description of
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210the `--left-right` option). However, it shows the commits that were
211cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, ``3rd on b'' may be
212cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
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213excluded from the output.
214
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215--left-only::
216--right-only::
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217 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
218 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
219 `--left-right`.
220+
221For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
222commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
6cf378f0 223`A`. In other words, this lists the `+` commits from `git cherry A B`.
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224More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
225list.
226
94f605ec 227--cherry::
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228 A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
229 limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
230 have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
231 `git log --cherry upstream...mybranch`, similar to
232 `git cherry upstream mybranch`.
233
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234-g::
235--walk-reflogs::
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236 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
237 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
238 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
239 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
b9190e79 240 nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
fdcf39e5 241+
4528aa1a 242With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
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243this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
244taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
245used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 246'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
4528aa1a 247instead. Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
fdcf39e5 248prefixed with this information on the same line.
4528aa1a 249This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
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250See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
251
252--merge::
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253 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
254 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
255
256--boundary::
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257 Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
258 prefixed with `-`.
fdcf39e5 259
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260--
261
262History Simplification
263~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
264
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265Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
266commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
267'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
268is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
269
270The following options select the commits to be shown:
271
272<paths>::
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273 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
274
275--simplify-by-decoration::
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276 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
277
278Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
279
280The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
281
282Default mode::
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283 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
284 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
285 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
286 with the same content)
287
288--full-history::
df6b0cad 289 Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
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290
291--dense::
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292 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
293 meaningful history.
294
295--sparse::
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296 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
297
298--simplify-merges::
4528aa1a 299 Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
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300 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
301 commits contributing to this merge.
302
57456ef4 303--ancestry-path::
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304 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
305 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
306 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
307 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
308 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
309
7bc2508b 310A more detailed explanation follows.
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311
312Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
313that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
314filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
315
316In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
317illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
318that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
319-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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320 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
321 / / / / / /
322 I B C D E Y
323 \ / / / / /
324 `-------------' X
70d9895e 325-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 326The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
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327each merge. The commits are:
328
329* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
4528aa1a 330 ``asdf'', and a file `quux` exists with contents ``quux''. Initial
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331 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
332
4528aa1a 333* In `A`, `foo` contains just ``foo''.
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334
335* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
336 hence TREESAME to all parents.
337
4528aa1a 338* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to ``foobar'',
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339 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
340
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341* `D` sets `foo` to ``baz''. Its merge `O` combines the strings from
342 `N` and `D` to ``foobarbaz''; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
70d9895e 343
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344* `E` changes `quux` to ``xyzzy'', and its merge `P` combines the
345 strings to ``quux xyzzy''. `P` is TREESAME to `O`, but not to `E`.
70d9895e 346
17b83d71 347* `X` is an independent root commit that added a new file `side`, and `Y`
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348 modified it. `Y` is TREESAME to `X`. Its merge `Q` added `side` to `P`, and
349 `Q` is TREESAME to `P`, but not to `Y`.
350
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351`rev-list` walks backwards through history, including or excluding
352commits based on whether `--full-history` and/or parent rewriting
353(via `--parents` or `--children`) are used. The following settings
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354are available.
355
356Default mode::
70d9895e 357 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
4528aa1a 358 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below). If the
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359 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
360 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
361 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
362 parents.
363+
364This results in:
365+
366-----------------------------------------------------------------------
367 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 368 / / /
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369 I---------D
370-----------------------------------------------------------------------
371+
372Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
373available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
374considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
375empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
376+
4528aa1a 377Parent/child relations are only visible with `--parents`, but that does
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378not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
379parent lines.
380
381--full-history without parent rewriting::
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382 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
383 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
384 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
385 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
386 the example, we get
387+
388-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 389 I A B N D O P Q
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390-----------------------------------------------------------------------
391+
d0af663e 392`M` was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. `E`,
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393`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
394do not appear.
395+
396Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
397about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
398them disconnected.
399
400--full-history with parent rewriting::
70d9895e 401 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
4528aa1a 402 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below).
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403+
404Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
405Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
406themselves. This results in
407+
408-----------------------------------------------------------------------
143f1eaf 409 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
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410 / / / / /
411 I B / D /
412 \ / / / /
413 `-------------'
414-----------------------------------------------------------------------
415+
4528aa1a 416Compare to `--full-history` without rewriting above. Note that `E`
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417was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
418rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
143f1eaf 419`N`, and `X`, `Y` and `Q`.
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420
421In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
422affects inclusion:
423
3240240f 424--dense::
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425 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
426 to any parent.
427
3240240f 428--sparse::
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429 All commits that are walked are included.
430+
4528aa1a 431Note that without `--full-history`, this still simplifies merges: if
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432one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
433sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 434
d266a988 435--simplify-merges::
d266a988 436 First, build a history graph in the same way that
4528aa1a 437 `--full-history` with parent rewriting does (see above).
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438+
439Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
440history according to the following rules:
441+
442--
443* Set `C'` to `C`.
444+
445* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
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446 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
447 root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
448 to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
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449+
450* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
451 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
452 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
453--
454+
455The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
4528aa1a 456`--full-history` with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
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457+
458-----------------------------------------------------------------------
459 .-A---M---N---O
460 / / /
461 I B D
462 \ / /
463 `---------'
464-----------------------------------------------------------------------
465+
19d6eb41 466Note the major differences in `N`, `P`, and `Q` over `--full-history`:
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467+
468--
469* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
470 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
471+
472* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
473 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
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474+
475* `Q`'s parent list had `Y` simplified to `X`. `X` was then removed, because it
476 was a TREESAME root. `Q` was then removed completely, because it had one
477 parent and is TREESAME.
d266a988 478--
fdcf39e5 479
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480Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
481
482--ancestry-path::
57456ef4 483 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
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484 chain between the ``from'' and ``to'' commits in the given commit
485 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the ``to''
19d6eb41 486 commit and descendants of the ``from'' commit.
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487+
488As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
489+
490-----------------------------------------------------------------------
491 D---E-------F
492 / \ \
493 B---C---G---H---I---J
494 / \
495 A-------K---------------L--M
496-----------------------------------------------------------------------
497+
498A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
499but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
500what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
4528aa1a 501that ``what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`''. The result in this
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502example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
503of course).
504+
505When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
506bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
507only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
4528aa1a 508excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the `--ancestry-path`
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509option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
510+
511-----------------------------------------------------------------------
512 E-------F
513 \ \
514 G---H---I---J
515 \
516 L--M
517-----------------------------------------------------------------------
518
4528aa1a 519The `--simplify-by-decoration` option allows you to view only the
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520big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
521that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
522(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
523above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
524contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
525commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
526
fdcf39e5 527ifdef::git-rev-list[]
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528Bisection Helpers
529~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
530
fdcf39e5 531--bisect::
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532 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
533 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
534 `refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
535 exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
536 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
537 are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
538+
fdcf39e5 539-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 540 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5 541-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4528aa1a 542+
fdcf39e5 543outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
4528aa1a 544+
fdcf39e5 545-----------------------------------------------------------------------
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546 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
547 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5 548-----------------------------------------------------------------------
4528aa1a 549+
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550would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
551introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
552generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
553one.
554
555--bisect-vars::
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556 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
557 `refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
558 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
559 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
560 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
561 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
562 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
563 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
564 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
565 `bisect_all`.
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566
567--bisect-all::
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568 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
569 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
570 commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
571 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
572 `--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 573+
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574This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
575test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
576may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 577+
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578This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
579after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
580`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
581endif::git-rev-list[]
582
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583
584Commit Ordering
585~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
586
587By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
588
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589--date-order::
590 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
591 otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
fdcf39e5 592
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593--author-date-order::
594 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
595 otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
596
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597--topo-order::
598 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
599 avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
600 intermixed.
601+
602For example, in a commit history like this:
603+
604----------------------------------------------------------------
fdcf39e5 605
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606 ---1----2----4----7
607 \ \
608 3----5----6----8---
fdcf39e5 609
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610----------------------------------------------------------------
611+
612where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
613rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
614timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
615+
616With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
6173 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
618avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
619together.
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620
621--reverse::
fdcf39e5 622 Output the commits in reverse order.
4528aa1a 623 Cannot be combined with `--walk-reflogs`.
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624
625Object Traversal
626~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
627
2de9b711 628These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
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629
630--objects::
fdcf39e5 631 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
4528aa1a 632 commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
fdcf39e5 633 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
4528aa1a 634 object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
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635
636--objects-edge::
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637 Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
638 commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
639 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build ``thin'' pack, which records
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640 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
641 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
642
643--unpacked::
4528aa1a 644 Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
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645 in packs.
646
ca92e59e 647--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
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648 Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
649 This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
19d6eb41 650 `unsorted` is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
4528aa1a 651 given on the command line. Otherwise (if `sorted` or no argument
19d6eb41 652 was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
ca92e59e 653 by commit time.
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654
655--do-walk::
4528aa1a 656 Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
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657
658Commit Formatting
659~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
660
661ifdef::git-rev-list[]
662Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
663more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
664linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
665endif::git-rev-list[]
666
667include::pretty-options.txt[]
668
669--relative-date::
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670 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
671
672--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
f98fd436 673 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
4528aa1a 674 as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
19d6eb41 675 value for the log command's `--date` option.
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676+
677`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
4528aa1a 678e.g. ``2 hours ago''.
f98fd436 679+
0ffa154b 680`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local time zone.
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681+
682`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
683+
684`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
19d6eb41 685format, often found in email messages.
f98fd436 686+
19d6eb41 687`--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
f98fd436 688+
2de9b711 689`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
f98fd436 690+
0ffa154b 691`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original time zone
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692(either committer's or author's).
693
694ifdef::git-rev-list[]
695--header::
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696 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
697 separated with a NUL character.
698endif::git-rev-list[]
699
700--parents::
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701 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
702 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
703
704--children::
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705 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
706 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
707
708ifdef::git-rev-list[]
709--timestamp::
710 Print the raw commit timestamp.
711endif::git-rev-list[]
712
713--left-right::
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714 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
715 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
716 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
717 commits are prefixed with `-`.
718+
719For example, if you have this topology:
720+
721-----------------------------------------------------------------------
722 y---b---b branch B
723 / \ /
724 / .
725 / / \
726 o---x---a---a branch A
727-----------------------------------------------------------------------
728+
729you would get an output like this:
730+
731-----------------------------------------------------------------------
732 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
733
734 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
735 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
736 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
737 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
738 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
739 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
740-----------------------------------------------------------------------
741
742--graph::
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743 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
744 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
745 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
746 to be drawn properly.
747+
748This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
749+
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750This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
751`--date-order` option may also be specified.
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752
753ifdef::git-rev-list[]
754--count::
755 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
756 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
4528aa1a 757 with `--left-right`, instead print the counts for left and
b388e14b 758 right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
4528aa1a 759 `--cherry-mark`, omit patch equivalent commits from these
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760 counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
761 by a tab.
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762endif::git-rev-list[]
763
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764ifndef::git-rev-list[]
765Diff Formatting
766~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
767
19d6eb41 768Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
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769Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
770options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
771
772-c::
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773 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
774 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
775 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
776 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
777 which were modified from all parents.
778
779--cc::
4528aa1a 780 This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
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781 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
782 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
783 one of them without modification.
784
785-m::
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786 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
787 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
788 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
4528aa1a 789 the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
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790 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
791 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
792
793-r::
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794 Show recursive diffs.
795
796-t::
4528aa1a 797 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
f98fd436 798endif::git-rev-list[]