Merge branch 'jc/checkout-merge-base'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
9f67fee2 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
bf07cc58 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
2c9693bd 14 [<repository> <refspec>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44`HEAD` (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
a75d7b54 53update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
149f6ddf 54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
a75d7b54 55fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
149f6ddf 56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
a75d7b54 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
5c633a4c 72 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
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76 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
9f67fee2 85-n::
3240240f 86--dry-run::
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87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
88
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89--porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
93
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94--delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
97
3240240f 98--tags::
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99 All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
102
3240240f 103--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 104--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
109
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110-f::
111--force::
f0fff36e 112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 116
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117--repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git-push' derives the
120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
125+
126--------------------------
127git push public #1
128git push --repo=public #2
129--------------------------
130+
131is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
132only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
133useful if you write an alias or script around 'git-push'.
dc36f265 134
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135--thin::
136--no-thin::
ba020ef5 137 These options are passed to 'git-send-pack'. Thin
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138 transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
139 objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
140
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141-v::
142--verbose::
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143 Run verbosely.
144
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145-q::
146--quiet::
147 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
148 unless an error occurs.
149
37ba0561 150include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 151
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152OUTPUT
153------
154
155The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
156section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
157locally or via ssh).
158
159The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
160representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
161
162-------------------------------
163 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
164-------------------------------
165
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166If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
167
168-------------------------------
169 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
170-------------------------------
171
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172flag::
173 A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
174 blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
175 rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
176 date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
177 date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
178
179summary::
180 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
181 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
182 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
a75d7b54 183 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates). For a
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184 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
185 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
a75d7b54 186 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast-forward). The
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187 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
188 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
189 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
190 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
191 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
192 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
193
194from::
195 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
196 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
197 name of the local ref is omitted.
198
199to::
200 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
201 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
202
203reason::
204 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
205 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
206 failure is described.
bb9fca80 207
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208Note about fast-forwards
209------------------------
210
211When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
212point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
213fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
214
215In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
216commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
217builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
218
219In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
220suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
221a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
222leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
223
224----------------
225
226 B
227 /
228 ---X---A
229
230----------------
231
232Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
233back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
234
235The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
236commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
237
238But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
239now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
240so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
241will now start building on top of B.
242
243The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
244to prevent such loss of history.
245
246If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
247the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
248history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
249by both parties, and push the result back.
250
251You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
252the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
253and B.
254
255----------------
256
257 B---C
258 / /
259 ---X---A
260
261----------------
262
263Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
264push will be accepted.
265
266Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
267with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
268create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
269A.
270
271----------------
272
273 B D
274 / /
275 ---X---A
276
277----------------
278
279Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
280accepted.
281
282There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
283rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
284pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
285A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
286commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
287forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
288you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
289(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
290overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
291a case where you do mean to lose history.
292
293
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294Examples
295--------
296
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297git push::
298 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
299 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
300 configured for the current branch).
301
302git push origin::
303 Without additional configuration, works like
304 `git push origin :`.
305+
306The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
307configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
308+
309For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
310use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
311the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
312`git push origin`.
313
314git push origin :::
315 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
316 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
317 description of "matching" branches.
318
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319git push origin master::
320 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
321 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
322 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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323 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
324 created.
bb9fca80 325
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326git push origin HEAD::
327 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
328 remote.
bb9fca80 329
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330git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
331 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
332 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
333 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
334 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 335
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336git push origin HEAD:master::
337 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
338 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
339 branch without thinking about its local name.
340
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341git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
342 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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343 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
344 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
345 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
346 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 347
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348git push origin :experimental::
349 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
350 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
351
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352git push origin {plus}dev:master::
353 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
a75d7b54 354 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
149f6ddf 355 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
a75d7b54 356 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
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357+
358----
359 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
360 \
361 X---Y---Z dev
362----
363+
364The above command would change the origin repository to
365+
366----
367 A---B (unnamed branch)
368 /
369 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
370----
371+
372Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
373and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
374a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
375
17507832 376
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377Author
378------
59eb68aa 379Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
25fb6290 380by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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381
382Documentation
383--------------
384Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
385
386GIT
387---
9e1f0a85 388Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite