Merge branch 'master' into cc/trace
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
2cf565c5 2======
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3
4NAME
5----
6git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
8b70004b 11[verse]
6acbcb92 12'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [-p|--paginate]
8b70004b 13 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
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14
15DESCRIPTION
16-----------
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17Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
18unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
19and full access to internals.
20
21See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
22link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
23"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
24also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration].
cb22bc44 25
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26The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
27as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-repo-config[1]).
28
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29OPTIONS
30-------
31--version::
a87cd02c 32 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
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33
34--help::
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35 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
36 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
37 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
38 given then all available commands are printed.
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39
40--exec-path::
a87cd02c 41 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
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42 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
43 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
44 the current setting and then exit.
45
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46-p|--paginate::
47 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
48
49--git-dir=<path>::
50 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
51 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
52
53--bare::
54 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
9755afbd 55
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56FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
57---------------------
9755afbd 58
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59See the references above to get started using git. The following is
60probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
8db9307c 61
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62The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
63link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
64underlying git architecture.
e6fc2346 65
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66See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
67examples.
9755afbd 68
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69GIT COMMANDS
70------------
9755afbd 71
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72We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
73("plumbing") commands.
8b15e2fb 74
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75Low-level commands (plumbing)
76-----------------------------
e6fc2346 77
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78Although git includes its
79own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
80development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
81might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
82gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
2cf565c5 83
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84We divide the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
85the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
86compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
87repositories.
204ee6a9 88
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89Manipulation commands
90~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a7154e91 91gitlink:git-apply[1]::
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92 Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
93 applies it to the working tree.
94
a7154e91 95gitlink:git-checkout-index[1]::
2fa090b6 96 Copy files from the index to the working tree.
2cf565c5 97
a7154e91 98gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 99 Creates a new commit object.
2cf565c5 100
a7154e91 101gitlink:git-hash-object[1]::
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102 Computes the object ID from a file.
103
a52e4ef8 104gitlink:git-index-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 105 Build pack idx file for an existing packed archive.
9cf6d335 106
a7154e91 107gitlink:git-init-db[1]::
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108 Creates an empty git object database, or reinitialize an
109 existing one.
2cf565c5 110
a7154e91 111gitlink:git-merge-index[1]::
2fa090b6 112 Runs a merge for files needing merging.
2cf565c5 113
a7154e91 114gitlink:git-mktag[1]::
2fa090b6 115 Creates a tag object.
2cf565c5 116
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117gitlink:git-mktree[1]::
118 Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
119
a7154e91 120gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]::
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121 Creates a packed archive of objects.
122
a7154e91 123gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]::
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124 Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
125
a7154e91 126gitlink:git-read-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 127 Reads tree information into the index.
2cf565c5 128
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129gitlink:git-repo-config[1]::
130 Get and set options in .git/config.
131
a7154e91 132gitlink:git-unpack-objects[1]::
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133 Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
134
a7154e91 135gitlink:git-update-index[1]::
2fa090b6 136 Registers files in the working tree to the index.
2cf565c5 137
a7154e91 138gitlink:git-write-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 139 Creates a tree from the index.
2cf565c5 140
e31bb3bb 141
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142Interrogation commands
143~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
f85a4191 144
a7154e91 145gitlink:git-cat-file[1]::
2fa090b6 146 Provide content or type/size information for repository objects.
2cf565c5 147
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148gitlink:git-describe[1]::
149 Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit.
150
a7154e91 151gitlink:git-diff-index[1]::
2fa090b6 152 Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository.
2cf565c5 153
a7154e91 154gitlink:git-diff-files[1]::
2fa090b6 155 Compares files in the working tree and the index.
2cf565c5 156
a7154e91 157gitlink:git-diff-stages[1]::
2fa090b6 158 Compares two "merge stages" in the index.
83db04ff 159
a7154e91 160gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 161 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
f85a4191 162
a7154e91 163gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 164 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
2cf565c5 165
a7154e91 166gitlink:git-ls-files[1]::
2fa090b6 167 Information about files in the index and the working tree.
2cf565c5 168
a7154e91 169gitlink:git-ls-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 170 Displays a tree object in human readable form.
2cf565c5 171
a7154e91 172gitlink:git-merge-base[1]::
2fa090b6 173 Finds as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
2cf565c5 174
a60d2d8f 175gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
2fa090b6 176 Find symbolic names for given revs.
a60d2d8f 177
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178gitlink:git-pack-redundant[1]::
179 Find redundant pack files.
180
a7154e91 181gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
2fa090b6 182 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
2cf565c5 183
a7154e91 184gitlink:git-show-index[1]::
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185 Displays contents of a pack idx file.
186
a7154e91 187gitlink:git-tar-tree[1]::
2fa090b6 188 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree object.
2cf565c5 189
a7154e91 190gitlink:git-unpack-file[1]::
2fa090b6 191 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
2cf565c5 192
a7154e91 193gitlink:git-var[1]::
2fa090b6 194 Displays a git logical variable.
aed022ab 195
a7154e91 196gitlink:git-verify-pack[1]::
2fa090b6 197 Validates packed git archive files.
f9253394 198
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199In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
200the working tree.
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201
202
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203Synching repositories
204~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
205
a7154e91 206gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1]::
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207 Updates from a remote repository (engine for ssh and
208 local transport).
f85a4191 209
a7154e91 210gitlink:git-http-fetch[1]::
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211 Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP by walking
212 commit chain.
204ee6a9 213
a7154e91 214gitlink:git-local-fetch[1]::
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215 Duplicates another git repository on a local system by
216 walking commit chain.
204ee6a9 217
a7154e91 218gitlink:git-peek-remote[1]::
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219 Lists references on a remote repository using
220 upload-pack protocol (engine for ssh and local
221 transport).
2f2de9b4 222
a7154e91 223gitlink:git-receive-pack[1]::
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224 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
225
a7154e91 226gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
f85a4191 227 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
2f2de9b4 228
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229gitlink:git-http-push[1]::
230 Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
231
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232gitlink:git-shell[1]::
233 Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
234
a7154e91 235gitlink:git-ssh-fetch[1]::
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236 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection by
237 walking commit chain.
508e67ab 238
a7154e91 239gitlink:git-ssh-upload[1]::
2fa090b6 240 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-fetch.
2f2de9b4 241
a7154e91 242gitlink:git-update-server-info[1]::
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243 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
244 clients discover references and packs on it.
245
a7154e91 246gitlink:git-upload-pack[1]::
efc7fa53 247 Invoked by 'git-fetch-pack' to push
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248 what are asked for.
249
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250gitlink:git-upload-tar[1]::
251 Invoked by 'git-tar-tree --remote' to return the tar
252 archive the other end asked for.
253
2f2de9b4 254
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255High-level commands (porcelain)
256-------------------------------
257
258We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
259ancillary user utilities.
260
261Main porcelain commands
262~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
905197de 263
a7154e91 264gitlink:git-add[1]::
2fa090b6 265 Add paths to the index.
905197de 266
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267gitlink:git-am[1]::
268 Apply patches from a mailbox, but cooler.
269
a7154e91 270gitlink:git-applymbox[1]::
2fa090b6 271 Apply patches from a mailbox, original version by Linus.
f85a4191 272
a7154e91 273gitlink:git-bisect[1]::
2fa090b6 274 Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search.
f85a4191 275
a7154e91 276gitlink:git-branch[1]::
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277 Create and Show branches.
278
a7154e91 279gitlink:git-checkout[1]::
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280 Checkout and switch to a branch.
281
a7154e91 282gitlink:git-cherry-pick[1]::
f85a4191 283 Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
3f971fc4 284
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285gitlink:git-clean[1]::
286 Remove untracked files from the working tree.
287
a7154e91 288gitlink:git-clone[1]::
f85a4191 289 Clones a repository into a new directory.
3f971fc4 290
a7154e91 291gitlink:git-commit[1]::
f85a4191 292 Record changes to the repository.
3f971fc4 293
a7154e91 294gitlink:git-diff[1]::
2aba319a 295 Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
35ef3a4c 296
a7154e91 297gitlink:git-fetch[1]::
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298 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
299
a7154e91 300gitlink:git-format-patch[1]::
2aba319a 301 Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
35ef3a4c 302
a7154e91 303gitlink:git-grep[1]::
2fa090b6 304 Print lines matching a pattern.
2aba319a 305
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306gitlink:gitk[1]::
307 The git repository browser.
308
a7154e91 309gitlink:git-log[1]::
f85a4191 310 Shows commit logs.
62033318 311
a7154e91 312gitlink:git-ls-remote[1]::
f85a4191 313 Shows references in a remote or local repository.
ab9b3138 314
a7154e91 315gitlink:git-merge[1]::
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316 Grand unified merge driver.
317
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318gitlink:git-mv[1]::
319 Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
320
a7154e91 321gitlink:git-pull[1]::
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322 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
323
a7154e91 324gitlink:git-push[1]::
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325 Update remote refs along with associated objects.
326
a7154e91 327gitlink:git-rebase[1]::
2fa090b6 328 Rebase local commits to the updated upstream head.
62033318 329
a7154e91 330gitlink:git-repack[1]::
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331 Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
332
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333gitlink:git-rerere[1]::
334 Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
335
a7154e91 336gitlink:git-reset[1]::
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337 Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
338
a7154e91 339gitlink:git-resolve[1]::
f85a4191 340 Merge two commits.
83db04ff 341
a7154e91 342gitlink:git-revert[1]::
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343 Revert an existing commit.
344
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345gitlink:git-rm[1]::
346 Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
347
a7154e91 348gitlink:git-shortlog[1]::
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349 Summarizes 'git log' output.
350
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351gitlink:git-show[1]::
352 Show one commit log and its diff.
353
a7154e91 354gitlink:git-show-branch[1]::
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355 Show branches and their commits.
356
a7154e91 357gitlink:git-status[1]::
f85a4191 358 Shows the working tree status.
83db04ff 359
a7154e91 360gitlink:git-verify-tag[1]::
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361 Check the GPG signature of tag.
362
a7154e91 363gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]::
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364 Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
365
e31bb3bb 366
90933efb 367Ancillary Commands
23091e95 368~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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369Manipulators:
370
a7154e91 371gitlink:git-applypatch[1]::
f85a4191 372 Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
905197de 373
a7154e91 374gitlink:git-archimport[1]::
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375 Import an arch repository into git.
376
a7154e91 377gitlink:git-convert-objects[1]::
2fa090b6 378 Converts old-style git repository.
2f2de9b4 379
a7154e91 380gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
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381 Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
382
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383gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1]::
384 Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
385
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386gitlink:git-cvsserver[1]::
387 A CVS server emulator for git.
388
0086e2c8 389gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
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390 Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
391
a7154e91 392gitlink:git-merge-one-file[1]::
2fa090b6 393 The standard helper program to use with `git-merge-index`.
204ee6a9 394
a7154e91 395gitlink:git-prune[1]::
2fa090b6 396 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database.
204ee6a9 397
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398gitlink:git-quiltimport[1]::
399 Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
400
a7154e91 401gitlink:git-relink[1]::
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402 Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
403
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404gitlink:git-svn[1]::
405 Bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git.
406
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407gitlink:git-svnimport[1]::
408 Import a SVN repository into git.
409
a7154e91 410gitlink:git-sh-setup[1]::
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411 Common git shell script setup code.
412
a60d2d8f 413gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
2fa090b6 414 Read and modify symbolic refs.
a60d2d8f 415
a7154e91 416gitlink:git-tag[1]::
2fa090b6 417 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG.
204ee6a9 418
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419gitlink:git-update-ref[1]::
420 Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
421
204ee6a9 422
90933efb 423Interrogators:
204ee6a9 424
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425gitlink:git-annotate[1]::
426 Annotate file lines with commit info.
427
428gitlink:git-blame[1]::
429 Blame file lines on commits.
430
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431gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]::
432 Make sure ref name is well formed.
433
a7154e91 434gitlink:git-cherry[1]::
f85a4191 435 Find commits not merged upstream.
905197de 436
a7154e91 437gitlink:git-count-objects[1]::
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438 Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
439
a7154e91 440gitlink:git-daemon[1]::
72e9340c 441 A really simple server for git repositories.
5077fa9c 442
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443gitlink:git-fmt-merge-msg[1]::
444 Produce a merge commit message.
445
a7154e91 446gitlink:git-get-tar-commit-id[1]::
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447 Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
448
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449gitlink:git-imap-send[1]::
450 Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder.
451
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452gitlink:git-instaweb[1]::
453 Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
454
a7154e91 455gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]::
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456 Extracts patch and authorship information from a single
457 e-mail message, optionally transliterating the commit
458 message into utf-8.
f85a4191 459
a7154e91 460gitlink:git-mailsplit[1]::
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461 A stupid program to split UNIX mbox format mailbox into
462 individual pieces of e-mail.
f85a4191 463
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464gitlink:git-merge-tree[1]::
465 Show three-way merge without touching index.
466
a7154e91 467gitlink:git-patch-id[1]::
f85a4191 468 Compute unique ID for a patch.
204ee6a9 469
a7154e91 470gitlink:git-parse-remote[1]::
2fa090b6 471 Routines to help parsing `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` files.
5077fa9c 472
a7154e91 473gitlink:git-request-pull[1]::
215a7ad1 474 git-request-pull.
5077fa9c 475
a7154e91 476gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]::
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477 Pick out and massage parameters.
478
a7154e91 479gitlink:git-send-email[1]::
83db04ff 480 Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
204ee6a9 481
c1fe2fe4 482gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
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483 Read and modify symbolic refs.
484
a7154e91 485gitlink:git-stripspace[1]::
35ef3a4c 486 Filter out empty lines.
7fc9d69f 487
7fc9d69f 488
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489Configuration Mechanism
490-----------------------
491
2fa090b6 492Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
5773c9f2 493is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
addf88e4 494simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
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495people. Here is an example:
496
497------------
498#
2fa090b6 499# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
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500#
501
502; core variables
503[core]
504 ; Don't trust file modes
505 filemode = false
506
507; user identity
508[user]
509 name = "Junio C Hamano"
510 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
511
512------------
513
514Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
515their operation accordingly.
516
517
6c84e2e0 518Identifier Terminology
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519----------------------
520<object>::
2fa090b6 521 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
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522
523<blob>::
2fa090b6 524 Indicates a blob object name.
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525
526<tree>::
2fa090b6 527 Indicates a tree object name.
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528
529<commit>::
2fa090b6 530 Indicates a commit object name.
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531
532<tree-ish>::
2fa090b6 533 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
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534 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
535 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
536 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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537
538<type>::
539 Indicates that an object type is required.
2fa090b6 540 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
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541
542<file>::
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543 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
544 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
2cf565c5 545
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546Symbolic Identifiers
547--------------------
90933efb 548Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
6c84e2e0 549symbolic notation:
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550
551HEAD::
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552 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
553 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
554
c1bdacf9 555<tag>::
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556 a valid tag 'name'
557 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
558
c1bdacf9 559<head>::
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560 a valid head 'name'
561 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
562
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563
564File/Directory Structure
565------------------------
c1bdacf9 566
a1d4aa74 567Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
c1bdacf9 568
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569Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
570
c1bdacf9 571Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
2fa090b6 572`$GIT_DIR`.
c1bdacf9 573
a1d4aa74 574
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575Terminology
576-----------
1bff6490 577Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
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578
579
580Environment Variables
581---------------------
582Various git commands use the following environment variables:
583
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584The git Repository
585~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
586These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
587is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
2fa090b6 588git so take care if using Cogito etc.
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589
590'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
591 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
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592 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
593 is used.
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594
595'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
596 If the object storage directory is specified via this
597 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
598 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
599 directory is used.
600
601'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
602 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
603 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
90933efb 604 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
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605 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
606 written to these directories.
607
608'GIT_DIR'::
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609 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
610 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
611 for the base of the repository.
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612
613git Commits
614~~~~~~~~~~~
615'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
616'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
617'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
618'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
619'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
a7154e91 620 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
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621
622git Diffs
623~~~~~~~~~
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624'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
625'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
c1bdacf9 626 see the "generating patches" section in :
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627 gitlink:git-diff-index[1];
628 gitlink:git-diff-files[1];
629 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]
2cf565c5 630
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631other
632~~~~~
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633'GIT_PAGER'::
634 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`.
635
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636'GIT_TRACE'::
637 If this variable is set git will print `trace:` messages on
638 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
639 execution and external command execution.
640
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641Discussion[[Discussion]]
642------------------------
941c9449 643include::README[]
6c84e2e0 644
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645Authors
646-------
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647* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
648* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
649* The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
650* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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651
652Documentation
653--------------
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654The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
655<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
656contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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657
658GIT
659---
a7154e91 660Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
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