git-log.txt,rev-list-options.txt: -n/--max-count is commit limiting
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
CommitLineData
fdcf39e5
MV
1Commit Formatting
2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12--relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
0adda936 16--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
fdcf39e5
MV
17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
dd0ffd5b
HO
19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
fdcf39e5
MV
21+
22`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23e.g. "2 hours ago".
24+
25`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26+
27`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28+
29`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30format, often found in E-mail messages.
31+
32`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33+
7dff9b30
LT
34`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35+
fdcf39e5
MV
36`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37(either committer's or author's).
38
adf60f14 39ifdef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
40--header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
adf60f14 44endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
45
46--parents::
47
e14712c9
MG
48 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
49 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
fdcf39e5 50
72276a3e
JH
51--children::
52
e14712c9
MG
53 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
54 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
72276a3e 55
adf60f14 56ifdef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
57--timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
adf60f14 59endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
60
61--left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67+
68For example, if you have this topology:
69+
70-----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76-----------------------------------------------------------------------
77+
d777af86 78you would get an output like this:
fdcf39e5
MV
79+
80-----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89-----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
7fefda5c
AS
91--graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97+
6a6c54ba
YD
98This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
99+
7fefda5c
AS
100This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
101'--date-order' option may also be specified.
102
f69c5018
TR
103ifdef::git-rev-list[]
104--count::
105 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
106 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
107 with '--left-right', instead print the counts for left and
108 right commits, separated by a tab.
109endif::git-rev-list[]
110
111
9612e743 112ifndef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
113Diff Formatting
114~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
115
116Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
117Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
118options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
119
120-c::
121
88d9d45d
PB
122 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
123 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
fdcf39e5
MV
124 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
125 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
126 which were modified from all parents.
127
128--cc::
129
130 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
ea3d988d
JH
131 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
132 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
133 one of them without modification.
fdcf39e5 134
88d9d45d
PB
135-m::
136
137 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
138 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
139 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
140 the first parent is shown when '--first-parent' option is given;
141 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
142 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
fdcf39e5
MV
143
144-r::
145
146 Show recursive diffs.
147
148-t::
149
150 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
60aa9cf8
JN
151
152-s::
153 Suppress diff output.
9612e743 154endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
155
156Commit Limiting
157~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
158
159Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
160special notations explained in the description, additional commit
190767f6
MG
161limiting may be applied. Note that they are applied before commit
162ordering and formatting options, such as '--reverse'.
fdcf39e5
MV
163
164--
165
3240240f 166-n 'number'::
982962ce 167--max-count=<number>::
fdcf39e5 168
841d8118 169 Limit the number of commits to output.
fdcf39e5 170
982962ce 171--skip=<number>::
fdcf39e5
MV
172
173 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
174
982962ce
MM
175--since=<date>::
176--after=<date>::
fdcf39e5
MV
177
178 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
179
982962ce
MM
180--until=<date>::
181--before=<date>::
fdcf39e5
MV
182
183 Show commits older than a specific date.
184
56b6d01d 185ifdef::git-rev-list[]
982962ce
MM
186--max-age=<timestamp>::
187--min-age=<timestamp>::
fdcf39e5
MV
188
189 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
56b6d01d 190endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5 191
982962ce
MM
192--author=<pattern>::
193--committer=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5
MV
194
195 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
196 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
197
982962ce 198--grep=<pattern>::
fdcf39e5
MV
199
200 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
201 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
202
7756ba74
MM
203--all-match::
204 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
205 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
206
3240240f
SB
207-i::
208--regexp-ignore-case::
fdcf39e5
MV
209
210 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
211
3240240f
SB
212-E::
213--extended-regexp::
fdcf39e5
MV
214
215 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
216 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
217
3240240f
SB
218-F::
219--fixed-strings::
dc1c0fff
JN
220
221 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
222 pattern as a regular expression).
223
fdcf39e5
MV
224--remove-empty::
225
226 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
227
2657420d
SG
228--merges::
229
230 Print only merge commits.
231
fdcf39e5
MV
232--no-merges::
233
234 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
235
236--first-parent::
237 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
238 commit. This option can give a better overview when
239 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
240 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
241 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
242 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
243 brought in to your history by such a merge.
244
245--not::
246
247 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
248 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
249
250--all::
251
cc1b8d8b 252 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
fdcf39e5 253 command line as '<commit>'.
c2e6385d 254
62b4698e 255--branches[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 256
cc1b8d8b 257 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
62b4698e 258 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 259 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
6a5d0b0a 260 '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 261
62b4698e 262--tags[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 263
cc1b8d8b 264 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
62b4698e 265 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
b09fe971 266 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 267 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
c2e6385d 268
62b4698e 269--remotes[=<pattern>]::
c2e6385d 270
cc1b8d8b 271 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
62b4698e 272 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
0e615b25 273 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
6a5d0b0a 274 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
fdcf39e5 275
62b4698e
ŠN
276--glob=<glob-pattern>::
277 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
d08bae7e
IL
278 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
279 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
6a5d0b0a 280 or '[', '/*' at the end is implied.
d08bae7e
IL
281
282
af06e93a
CC
283ifndef::git-rev-list[]
284--bisect::
285
cc1b8d8b 286 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
af06e93a 287 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
cc1b8d8b 288 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
af06e93a
CC
289 line.
290endif::git-rev-list[]
291
fdcf39e5
MV
292--stdin::
293
294 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
60da8b15
JH
295 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
296 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
297 result.
fdcf39e5 298
8b3dce56 299ifdef::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
300--quiet::
301
302 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
303 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
304 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
305 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
306 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
adf60f14 307endif::git-rev-list[]
fdcf39e5
MV
308
309--cherry-pick::
310
311 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
312 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
313 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
314+
315For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
316to list all commits on only one side of them is with
317`--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
318that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
319from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
320from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
321excluded from the output.
322
3240240f
SB
323-g::
324--walk-reflogs::
fdcf39e5
MV
325
326 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
327 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
328 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
329 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
b9190e79 330 nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
fdcf39e5
MV
331+
332With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
333this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
334taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
335used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
18a2197e 336'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
fdcf39e5
MV
337instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
338prefixed with this information on the same line.
e534735a 339This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
fdcf39e5
MV
340See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
341
342--merge::
343
344 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
345 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
346
347--boundary::
348
349 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
350 not shown.
351
70d9895e
TR
352--
353
354History Simplification
355~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
356
7bc2508b
SB
357Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
358commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
359'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
360is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
361
362The following options select the commits to be shown:
363
364<paths>::
365
366 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
367
368--simplify-by-decoration::
369
370 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
371
372Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
373
374The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
375
376Default mode::
377
378 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
379 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
380 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
381 with the same content)
382
383--full-history::
384
385 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
386
387--dense::
388
389 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
390 meaningful history.
391
392--sparse::
393
394 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
395
396--simplify-merges::
397
398 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
399 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
400 commits contributing to this merge.
401
57456ef4
JH
402--ancestry-path::
403
404 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
405 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
406 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
407 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
408 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
409
7bc2508b 410A more detailed explanation follows.
70d9895e
TR
411
412Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
413that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
414filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
415
416In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
417illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
418that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
419-----------------------------------------------------------------------
420 .-A---M---N---O---P
421 / / / / /
422 I B C D E
423 \ / / / /
424 `-------------'
425-----------------------------------------------------------------------
426The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
427each merge. The commits are:
428
429* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
430 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
431 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
432
433* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
434
435* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
436 hence TREESAME to all parents.
437
438* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
439 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
440
441* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
442 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
443
444* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
445 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
446 TREESAME to all parents.
447
448'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
449commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
450(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
451are available.
452
453Default mode::
454
455 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
456 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
457 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
458 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
459 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
460 parents.
461+
462This results in:
463+
464-----------------------------------------------------------------------
465 .-A---N---O
f70d0586 466 / / /
70d9895e
TR
467 I---------D
468-----------------------------------------------------------------------
469+
470Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
471available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
472considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
473empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
474+
475Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
476not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
477parent lines.
478
479--full-history without parent rewriting::
480
481 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
482 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
483 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
484 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
485 the example, we get
486+
487-----------------------------------------------------------------------
488 I A B N D O
489-----------------------------------------------------------------------
490+
491`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
492`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
493do not appear.
494+
495Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
496about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
497them disconnected.
498
499--full-history with parent rewriting::
500
501 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
502 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
503+
504Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
505Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
506themselves. This results in
507+
508-----------------------------------------------------------------------
509 .-A---M---N---O---P
510 / / / / /
511 I B / D /
512 \ / / / /
513 `-------------'
514-----------------------------------------------------------------------
515+
516Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
517was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
518rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
519`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
520
521In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
522affects inclusion:
523
3240240f 524--dense::
70d9895e
TR
525
526 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
527 to any parent.
528
3240240f 529--sparse::
fdcf39e5 530
70d9895e
TR
531 All commits that are walked are included.
532+
533Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
534one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
535sides of the merge are never walked.
fdcf39e5 536
d266a988
TR
537--simplify-merges::
538
539 First, build a history graph in the same way that
540 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
541+
542Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
543history according to the following rules:
544+
545--
546* Set `C'` to `C`.
547+
548* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
549 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
550 remove duplicates.
551+
552* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
553 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
554 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
555--
556+
557The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
558'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
559+
560-----------------------------------------------------------------------
561 .-A---M---N---O
562 / / /
563 I B D
564 \ / /
565 `---------'
566-----------------------------------------------------------------------
567+
568Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
569+
570--
571* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
572 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
573+
574* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
575 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
576--
fdcf39e5 577
57456ef4
JH
578Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
579
580--ancestry-path::
581
582 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
583 chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit
584 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
585 commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.
586+
587As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
588+
589-----------------------------------------------------------------------
590 D---E-------F
591 / \ \
592 B---C---G---H---I---J
593 / \
594 A-------K---------------L--M
595-----------------------------------------------------------------------
596+
597A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
598but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
599what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
600that "what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`". The result in this
601example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
602of course).
603+
604When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
605bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
606only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
607excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the '\--ancestry-path'
608option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
609+
610-----------------------------------------------------------------------
611 E-------F
612 \ \
613 G---H---I---J
614 \
615 L--M
616-----------------------------------------------------------------------
617
3fcfd662
NS
618The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
619big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
620that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
621(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
622above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
623contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
624commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
625
fdcf39e5 626ifdef::git-rev-list[]
70d9895e
TR
627Bisection Helpers
628~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
629
fdcf39e5
MV
630--bisect::
631
632Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
af06e93a 633included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
cc1b8d8b
JK
634`refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
635exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
af06e93a 636added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
cc1b8d8b 637are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
fdcf39e5
MV
638
639-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36 640 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5
MV
641-----------------------------------------------------------------------
642
643outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
644
645-----------------------------------------------------------------------
6514aa36
CC
646 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
647 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
fdcf39e5
MV
648-----------------------------------------------------------------------
649
650would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
651introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
652generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
653one.
654
655--bisect-vars::
656
af06e93a 657This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
cc1b8d8b 658`refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
af06e93a
CC
659text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
660name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
661expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
662to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
663`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
664number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
665`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
666`bisect_all`.
fdcf39e5
MV
667
668--bisect-all::
669
670This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
671commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
cc1b8d8b 672commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
af06e93a
CC
673from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
674`--bisect`.)
3d2d4f96 675+
fdcf39e5
MV
676This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
677test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
678may not compile for example).
3d2d4f96 679+
fdcf39e5
MV
680This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
681after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
682`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
683endif::git-rev-list[]
684
fdcf39e5
MV
685
686Commit Ordering
687~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
688
689By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
690
691--topo-order::
692
693 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
694 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
695
696--date-order::
697
698 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
699 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
700 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
701
702--reverse::
703
704 Output the commits in reverse order.
705 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
706
707Object Traversal
708~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
709
710These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
711
712--objects::
713
714 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
715 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
716 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
717 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
718
719--objects-edge::
720
721 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
722 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
723 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
724 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
725 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
726
727--unpacked::
728
729 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
730 in packs.
731
732--no-walk::
733
734 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
735
736--do-walk::
737
738 Overrides a previous --no-walk.