doc: refer to tracking configuration as "upstream"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
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1git-checkout(1)
2===============
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3
4NAME
5----
76ce9462 6git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
71bb1033 10[verse]
c7cb12b8 11'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-t | --track | --no-track] [-b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
eac5a401 12'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
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13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
4aaa7027 16
71bb1033 17When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
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18updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
19branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
71bb1033 20specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
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21be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
22options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
4aaa7027 23
c7cb12b8 24As a convenience, --track will default to creating a branch whose
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25name is constructed from the specified branch name by stripping
26the first namespace level.
27
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28When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
29branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
ecc03c1c 30the index file, or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit). In
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31this case, the `-b` and `--track` options are meaningless and giving
32either of them results in an error. The <tree-ish> argument can be
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33used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
34to update the index for the given paths before updating the
35working tree.
4aaa7027 36
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37The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
38default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
39checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
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40Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
41specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
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42using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
43file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
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44
45OPTIONS
46-------
6124aee5 47-q::
2be7fcb4 48 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
6124aee5 49
0270f7c5 50-f::
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51 When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
52 working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
53 local changes.
54+
55When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
56entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
0270f7c5 57
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58--ours::
59--theirs::
60 When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
61 ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
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62
63-b::
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64 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
65 <branch>. The new branch name must pass all checks defined
5162e697 66 by linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
2b1f4247 67 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
7fc9d69f 68
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69-t::
70--track::
ba020ef5 71 When creating a new branch, set up configuration so that 'git-pull'
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72 will automatically retrieve data from the start point, which must be
73 a branch. Use this if you always pull from the same upstream branch
74 into the new branch, and if you don't want to use "git pull
75 <repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
76 when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
77 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
c7cb12b8 78 'git checkout' and 'git branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
572fc81d 79 given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
c7cb12b8 80 start point is either a local or remote branch.
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82If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
83derived from the remote branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
84is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
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85next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
86This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
87off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
88"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
89guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
971e8352 90explicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
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91
92--no-track::
167d7445 93 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
70e96647 94 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable is true.
0746d19a 95
969d326d 96-l::
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97 Create the new branch's reflog. This activates recording of
98 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
967506bb 99 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
969d326d 100
1be0659e 101-m::
eac5a401 102--merge::
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103 When switching branches,
104 if you have local modifications to one or more files that
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105 are different between the current branch and the branch to
106 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
107 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
108 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
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109 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
110 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
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112When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
113paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
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114and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
115should result in deletion of the path).
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116+
117When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
118the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
1be0659e 119
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120--conflict=<style>::
121 The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
122 conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
123 merge.conflictstyle configuration variable. Possible values are
124 "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
125 "merge" style, shows the original contents).
1be0659e 126
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127<new_branch>::
128 Name for the new branch.
7fc9d69f 129
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130<tree-ish>::
131 Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified,
132 the index will be used.
133
0270f7c5 134<branch>::
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135 Branch to checkout (when no paths are given); may be any object
136 ID that resolves to a commit. Defaults to HEAD.
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137+
138When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
139your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
696acf45 140+
dcb11263 141As a special case, the `"@\{-N\}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
696acf45 142checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
dcb11263 143`-` which is synonymous with `"@\{-1\}"`.
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144
145
146Detached HEAD
147-------------
148
149It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
150not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
151example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
152point, like this:
153
154------------
155$ git checkout v2.6.18
156------------
157
158Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
c7cb12b8 159create a temporary branch using the `-b` option, but starting from
5e1a2e8c 160version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
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161current branch and directly points at the commit named by the tag
162(`v2.6.18` in the example above).
5e1a2e8c 163
c7cb12b8 164You can use all git commands while in this state. You can use
b1889c36 165`git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
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166example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
167a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
168merge $othercommit`.
169
170The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
171by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
172What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
173and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
174checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
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175garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
176the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
177
178------------
179$ git log -g -2 HEAD
180------------
7fc9d69f 181
4aaa7027 182
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183EXAMPLES
184--------
4aaa7027 185
1be0659e 186. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
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187the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
188mistake, and gets it back from the index.
1be0659e 189+
4aaa7027 190------------
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191$ git checkout master <1>
192$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
4aaa7027 193$ rm -f hello.c
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194$ git checkout hello.c <3>
195------------
196+
1e2ccd3a 197<1> switch branch
c7cb12b8 198<2> take a file out of another commit
ce8936c3 199<3> restore hello.c from the index
1be0659e 200+
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201If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
202step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
203You should instead write:
1be0659e 204+
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205------------
206$ git checkout -- hello.c
207------------
208
c7cb12b8 209. After working in the wrong branch, switching to the correct
71bb1033 210branch would be done using:
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211+
212------------
213$ git checkout mytopic
214------------
215+
216However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
c7cb12b8 217differ in files that you have modified locally, in which case
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218the above checkout would fail like this:
219+
220------------
221$ git checkout mytopic
222fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
223------------
224+
225You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
226three-way merge:
227+
228------------
229$ git checkout -m mytopic
230Auto-merging frotz
231------------
232+
233After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
234registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
235changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
236
237. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
238the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
239+
240------------
241$ git checkout -m mytopic
242Auto-merging frotz
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243ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
244fatal: merge program failed
245------------
246+
247At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
248the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
249files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
d7f078b8 250`git add` as usual:
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251+
252------------
253$ edit frotz
d7f078b8 254$ git add frotz
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255------------
256
4aaa7027 257
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258Author
259------
260Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
261
262Documentation
263--------------
264Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
265
266GIT
267---
9e1f0a85 268Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite