format-patch: teach format.notes config option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
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1git-format-patch(1)
2===================
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
50710ce4 12'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
f693b7e9 13 [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
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14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
6622d9c7 16 [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
7022650f 17 [--signature-file=<file>]
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18 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
19 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
20 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
21 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
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22 [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
23 [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
ae6c098f 24 [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
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25 [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet]
26 [--no-notes | --notes[=<ref>]]
126facf8 27 [--interdiff=<previous>]
8631bf1c 28 [--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
738e88a2 29 [--progress]
50710ce4 30 [<common diff options>]
8a1d076e 31 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
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32
33DESCRIPTION
34-----------
2052d146 35
8a1d076e 36Prepare each commit with its patch in
2052d146 37one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
2052d146 38The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
0b444cdb 39for use with 'git am'.
35ef3a4c 40
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41There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
42
431. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
44 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
45 that leads to the <since> to be output.
46
472. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
9d83e382 48 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7]) means the
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49 commits in the specified range.
50
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51The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
52apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
9e9f132f 53history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
6cf378f0 54--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
dce5ef14 55can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
8a1d076e 56
e6ff0f42 57By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
2052d146 58first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
dce5ef14 59the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
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60will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
61The names of the output files are printed to standard
dce5ef14 62output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
66f04f38 63
dce5ef14 64If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
bc6bf2d7 65they are created in the current working directory. The default path
ae9f6311 66can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
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67The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
68To store patches in the current working directory even when
69`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
35ef3a4c 70
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71By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
72the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
73line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
74
75When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
76"[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
77To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
35ef3a4c 78
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79If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
80`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
81as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
cc35de84 82reference.
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83
84OPTIONS
85-------
c1a95fa6 86:git-format-patch: 1
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87include::diff-options.txt[]
88
ed5f07a6 89-<n>::
2c642ed8 90 Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.
ed5f07a6 91
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92-o <dir>::
93--output-directory <dir>::
35ef3a4c 94 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
efd02016 95 current working directory.
35ef3a4c 96
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97-n::
98--numbered::
a567fdcb 99 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
35ef3a4c 100
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101-N::
102--no-numbered::
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103 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
104
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105--start-number <n>::
106 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
107
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108--numbered-files::
109 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
110 without the default first line of the commit appended.
e6ff0f42 111
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112-k::
113--keep-subject::
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114 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
115 commit log message.
116
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117-s::
118--signoff::
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119 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
120 the committer identity of yourself.
b2c150d3 121 See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
6f855371 122
54ba6013 123--stdout::
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124 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
125 instead of creating a file for each one.
7fc9d69f 126
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127--attach[=<boundary>]::
128 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
129 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 130 second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
c112f689 131
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132--no-attach::
133 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
134 configuration setting.
135
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136--inline[=<boundary>]::
137 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
138 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
dce5ef14 139 second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
a15a44ef 140
30984ed2 141--thread[=<style>]::
f693b7e9 142--no-thread::
dce5ef14 143 Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
f693b7e9 144 make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
dce5ef14 145 first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
f693b7e9 146 reference.
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147+
148The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
fd1ff306 149'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
30984ed2 150series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
6cf378f0 151`--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
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152threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
153+
ae9f6311 154The default is `--no-thread`, unless the `format.thread` configuration
dce5ef14 155is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
ae9f6311 156style specified by `format.thread` if any, or else `shallow`.
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157+
158Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
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159itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
160will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
28ffb898 161
da56645d 162--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
dce5ef14 163 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
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164 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
165 provide a new patch series.
166
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167--ignore-if-in-upstream::
168 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
169 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
170 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
171 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
172 ignored.
173
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174--subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
175 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
176 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
177 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
dce5ef14 178 combined with the `--numbered` option.
2d9e4a47 179
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180--rfc::
181 Alias for `--subject-prefix="RFC PATCH"`. RFC means "Request For
182 Comments"; use this when sending an experimental patch for
183 discussion rather than application.
184
7952ea66 185-v <n>::
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186--reroll-count=<n>::
187 Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
d614f075 188 output filenames have `v<n>` prepended to them, and the
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189 subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
190 `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
191 `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
192 file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
193
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194--to=<email>::
195 Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
196 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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197 The negated form `--no-to` discards all `To:` headers added so
198 far (from config or command line).
ae6c098f 199
736cc67d 200--cc=<email>::
dce5ef14 201 Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
736cc67d 202 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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203 The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
204 far (from config or command line).
736cc67d 205
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206--from::
207--from=<ident>::
208 Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
209 author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
210 provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
211 message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
212 the committer ident.
213+
214Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
215emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
216original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
217header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
218transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
219feeding the result to `git send-email`.
220
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221--add-header=<header>::
222 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
223 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
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224 For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`.
225 The negated form `--no-add-header` discards *all* (`To:`,
226 `Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
227 line.
d7d9c2d0 228
2a4c2607 229--[no-]cover-letter::
f4912391 230 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
561d2b79 231 containing the branch description, shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
f4912391 232 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
a5a27c79 233
126facf8 234--interdiff=<previous>::
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235 As a reviewer aid, insert an interdiff into the cover letter,
236 or as commentary of the lone patch of a 1-patch series, showing
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237 the differences between the previous version of the patch series and
238 the series currently being formatted. `previous` is a single revision
239 naming the tip of the previous series which shares a common base with
240 the series being formatted (for example `git format-patch
241 --cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
242
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243--range-diff=<previous>::
244 As a reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
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245 into the cover letter, or as commentary of the lone patch of a
246 1-patch series, showing the differences between the previous
31e2617a 247 version of the patch series and the series currently being formatted.
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248 `previous` can be a single revision naming the tip of the previous
249 series if it shares a common base with the series being formatted (for
31e2617a 250 example `git format-patch --cover-letter --range-diff=feature/v1 -3
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251 feature/v2`), or a revision range if the two versions of the series are
252 disjoint (for example `git format-patch --cover-letter
253 --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
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254+
255Note that diff options passed to the command affect how the primary
256product of `format-patch` is generated, and they are not passed to
257the underlying `range-diff` machinery used to generate the cover-letter
258material (this may change in the future).
31e2617a 259
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260--creation-factor=<percent>::
261 Used with `--range-diff`, tweak the heuristic which matches up commits
262 between the previous and current series of patches by adjusting the
263 creation/deletion cost fudge factor. See linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
264 for details.
265
e422c0cf 266--notes[=<ref>]::
83d9db78 267--no-notes::
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268 Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
269 after the three-dash line.
270+
271The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
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272the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
273and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
274these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
2de9b711 275keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
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276of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
277configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
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278+
279The default is `--no-notes`, unless the `format.notes` configuration is
280set.
e422c0cf 281
2c7ee986 282--[no-]signature=<signature>::
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283 Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
284 is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
2de9b711 285 signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
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286 number.
287
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288--signature-file=<file>::
289 Works just like --signature except the signature is read from a file.
290
03eeaeae 291--suffix=.<sfx>::
917a8f89 292 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
02783075 293 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
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294 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
295 suffix.
03eeaeae 296+
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297Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
298you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
03eeaeae 299
b7df098c 300-q::
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301--quiet::
302 Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
303
37c22a4b 304--no-binary::
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305 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
306 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
307 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
308 still useful for code review.
37c22a4b 309
3a30aa17 310--zero-commit::
311 Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
312 of the hash of the commit.
313
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314--base=<commit>::
315 Record the base tree information to identify the state the
316 patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
317 below for details.
318
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319--root::
320 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
321 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
322 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
323 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
324 of this flag.
325
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326--progress::
327 Show progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.
328
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329CONFIGURATION
330-------------
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331You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
332defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
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333outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
334attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
96ce6d26 335
917a8f89 336------------
96ce6d26 337[format]
7f9d77f2 338 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
da0005b8 339 subjectPrefix = CHANGE
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340 suffix = .txt
341 numbered = auto
ae6c098f 342 to = <email>
fe8928e6 343 cc = <email>
0db5260b 344 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
da0005b8 345 signOff = true
2a4c2607 346 coverletter = auto
917a8f89 347------------
03eeaeae 348
96ce6d26 349
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350DISCUSSION
351----------
352
353The patch produced by 'git format-patch' is in UNIX mailbox format,
354with a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output
355from format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:
356
357------------
358From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
359From: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
360Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
361Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
362 =?UTF-8?q?Uwe=20Kleine-K=C3=B6nig=20diet?=
363MIME-Version: 1.0
364Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
365Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
366
367arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
368(See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)
369
370Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking
371...
372------------
373
374Typically it will be placed in a MUA's drafts folder, edited to add
375timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
376dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
377with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers
378can save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with
379linkgit:git-am[1].
380
381When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
382'git format-patch' can be tweaked to take advantage of the 'git am
383--scissors' feature. After your response to the discussion comes a
384line that consists solely of "`-- >8 --`" (scissors and perforation),
385followed by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:
386
387------------
388...
389> So we should do such-and-such.
390
391Makes sense to me. How about this patch?
392
393-- >8 --
394Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet
395
396arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
397...
398------------
399
400When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
401patch, so in addition to the "`From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp`" marker you
402should omit `From:` and `Date:` lines from the patch file. The patch
403title is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the
404patch is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep
405the Subject: line, like the example above.
406
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407Checking for patch corruption
408~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
409Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
410two common types of corruption:
411
412* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
413
414* Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
415 beginning.
416
417One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:
418
419* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
420 with To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and
421 maintainer address.
422
423* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,
424 say.
425
426* Apply it:
427
428 $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
429 $ git checkout test-apply
430 $ git reset --hard
431 $ git am a.patch
432
433If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
434
435* The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
436 does not have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase
437 the patch with linkgit:git-rebase[1] before regenerating it in
438 this case.
439
440* The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that
441 the patch does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and
442 see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
443 corruption patterns mentioned above.
444
445* While at it, check the 'info' and 'final-commit' files as well.
446 If what is in 'final-commit' is not exactly what you would want to
447 see in the commit log message, it is very likely that the
448 receiver would end up hand editing the log message when applying
449 your patch. Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the
450 patch e-mail should come after the three-dash line that signals
451 the end of the commit message.
452
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453MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS
454------------------
455Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
456various mailers.
457
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458GMail
459~~~~~
460GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
461interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
462use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP server, or
463use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP server and forward
464the emails through that.
465
466For hints on using 'git send-email' to send your patches through the
467GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
468
469For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
470section of linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
471
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472Thunderbird
473~~~~~~~~~~~
474By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
475them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
2de9b711 476resulting email unusable by Git.
dc53151f 477
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478There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
479configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
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480an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
481
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482Approach #1 (add-on)
483^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
484
485Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from
486https://addons.mozilla.org/thunderbird/addon/toggle-word-wrap/
487It adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer's "Options" menu
488that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you otherwise do
489(cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc), but you have to
490insert line breaks manually in any text that you type.
491
492Approach #2 (configuration)
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493^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
494Three steps:
495
4961. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
497 Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
498 uncheck "Compose Messages in HTML".
499
5002. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.
501+
502In Thunderbird 2:
503Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
504+
505In Thunderbird 3:
506Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
507"mail.wrap_long_lines".
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508Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`. Also, search for
509"mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
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510
5113. Disable the use of format=flowed:
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512 Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
513 "mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed".
514 Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
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515
516After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
517otherwise would (cut + paste, 'git format-patch' | 'git imap-send', etc),
518and the patches will not be mangled.
519
b8959605 520Approach #3 (external editor)
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521^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
522
523The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
524AboutConfig from http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/ and
525External Editor from http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
526
5271. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
528
5292. Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
530 uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
531 "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
532 send the patch.
533
5343. In the main Thunderbird window, 'before' you open the compose
535 window for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the
536 following to the indicated values:
537+
538----------
539 mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
540 mailnews.wraplength => 0
541----------
542
5434. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
544
5455. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
546 the editor normally.
547
548Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with
549about:config and the following settings but no one's tried yet.
550
551----------
552 mail.html_compose => false
553 mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
554 mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
555----------
556
557There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can help
558you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use it, do the
559steps above and then use the script as the external editor.
560
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561KMail
562~~~~~
563This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
564
5651. Prepare the patch as a text file.
566
5672. Click on New Mail.
568
5693. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
570 "Word wrap" is not set.
571
5724. Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
573
5745. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
575 message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
576
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577BASE TREE INFORMATION
578---------------------
579
580The base tree information block is used for maintainers or third party
581testers to know the exact state the patch series applies to. It consists
582of the 'base commit', which is a well-known commit that is part of the
583stable part of the project history everybody else works off of, and zero
584or more 'prerequisite patches', which are well-known patches in flight
585that is not yet part of the 'base commit' that need to be applied on top
586of 'base commit' in topological order before the patches can be applied.
587
588The 'base commit' is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
589the commit object name. A 'prerequisite patch' is shown as
590"prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex 'patch id', which can
591be obtained by passing the patch through the `git patch-id --stable`
592command.
593
594Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied well-known
595patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then built your three-patch
596series A, B, C, the history would be like:
597
598................................................
599---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C
600................................................
601
602With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
7ba1ceef 603`--cover-letter` or using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
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604range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
605first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
606cover letter), like this:
607
608------------
609base-commit: P
610prerequisite-patch-id: X
611prerequisite-patch-id: Y
612prerequisite-patch-id: Z
613------------
614
615For non-linear topology, such as
616
617................................................
618---P---X---A---M---C
619 \ /
620 Y---Z---B
621................................................
622
623You can also use `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` to generate patches
624for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the
625end of the first message.
e0d48279 626
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627If set `--base=auto` in cmdline, it will track base commit automatically,
628the base commit will be the merge base of tip commit of the remote-tracking
629branch and revision-range specified in cmdline.
630For a local branch, you need to track a remote branch by `git branch
631--set-upstream-to` before using this option.
632
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633EXAMPLES
634--------
635
921177f5 636* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
ba170517 637 the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
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638+
639------------
467c0197 640$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
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641------------
642
643* Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
ba170517 644 origin branch:
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645+
646------------
647$ git format-patch origin
648------------
649+
650For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
651
652* Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
ba170517 653 project:
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654+
655------------
9c67c757 656$ git format-patch --root origin
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657------------
658
659* The same as the previous one:
660+
661------------
662$ git format-patch -M -B origin
663------------
664+
665Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
666intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
50710ce4 667the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
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668Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
669use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
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670
671* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
ba170517 672 as e-mailable patches:
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673+
674------------
675$ git format-patch -3
676------------
28ffb898 677
56ae8df5 678SEE ALSO
28ffb898 679--------
5162e697 680linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
28ffb898 681
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682GIT
683---
9e1f0a85 684Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite