git-commit doc: remove duplicated --dry-run description
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
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1git-push(1)
2===========
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3
4NAME
5----
7bd7f280 6git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
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7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
97925fde 11[verse]
bed5122f 12'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
bf07cc58 13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
2c9693bd 14 [<repository> <refspec>...]
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15
16DESCRIPTION
17-----------
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18
19Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20necessary to complete the given refs.
7fc9d69f 21
cc55aaec 22You can make interesting things happen to a repository
eb0362a4 23every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
5162e697 24documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
eb0362a4 25
7fc9d69f 26
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27OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28------------------
3598a308 29<repository>::
85a97d4e 30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
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31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
3598a308 34
2c9693bd 35<refspec>...::
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36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
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42The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44`HEAD` (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]).
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46The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49updated.
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51The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
53update can fast forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
54you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
55fast forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
56EXAMPLES below for details.
3598a308 57+
80391846 58`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
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59+
60Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61the remote repository.
a83619d6 62+
149f6ddf 63The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
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64directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
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66already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
7fc9d69f 69
3240240f 70--all::
cc55aaec 71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
5c633a4c 72 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
d6a73596 73
3240240f 74--mirror::
ff206748 75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
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76 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
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78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
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81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
ff206748 84
3240240f 85--dry-run::
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86 Do everything except actually send the updates.
87
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88--porcelain::
89 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
90 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
91 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
92
3240240f 93--tags::
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94 All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
95 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
96 line.
97
3240240f 98--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
4fc988ef 99--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
ba020ef5 100 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
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101 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
102 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
103 a directory on the default $PATH.
104
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105-f::
106--force::
f0fff36e 107 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
64a476e6 108 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
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109 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
110 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
7fc9d69f 111
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112--repo=<repository>::
113 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
114 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git-push' derives the
115 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
116 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
117 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
118 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
119 the difference between these two commands
120+
121--------------------------
122git push public #1
123git push --repo=public #2
124--------------------------
125+
126is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
127only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
128useful if you write an alias or script around 'git-push'.
dc36f265 129
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130--thin::
131--no-thin::
ba020ef5 132 These options are passed to 'git-send-pack'. Thin
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133 transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
134 objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
135
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136-v::
137--verbose::
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138 Run verbosely.
139
37ba0561 140include::urls-remotes.txt[]
eb0362a4 141
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142OUTPUT
143------
144
145The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
146section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
147locally or via ssh).
148
149The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
150representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
151
152-------------------------------
153 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
154-------------------------------
155
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156If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
157
158-------------------------------
159 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
160-------------------------------
161
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162flag::
163 A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
164 blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
165 rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
166 date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
167 date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
168
169summary::
170 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
171 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
172 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
173 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast forward updates). For a
174 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
175 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
176 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The
177 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
178 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
179 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
180 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
181 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
182 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
183
184from::
185 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
186 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
187 name of the local ref is omitted.
188
189to::
190 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
191 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
192
193reason::
194 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
195 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
196 failure is described.
bb9fca80 197
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198Note about fast-forwards
199------------------------
200
201When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
202point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
203fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
204
205In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
206commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
207builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
208
209In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
210suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
211a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
212leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
213
214----------------
215
216 B
217 /
218 ---X---A
219
220----------------
221
222Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
223back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
224
225The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
226commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
227
228But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
229now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
230so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
231will now start building on top of B.
232
233The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
234to prevent such loss of history.
235
236If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
237the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
238history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
239by both parties, and push the result back.
240
241You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
242the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
243and B.
244
245----------------
246
247 B---C
248 / /
249 ---X---A
250
251----------------
252
253Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
254push will be accepted.
255
256Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
257with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
258create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
259A.
260
261----------------
262
263 B D
264 / /
265 ---X---A
266
267----------------
268
269Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
270accepted.
271
272There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
273rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
274pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
275A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
276commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
277forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
278you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
279(and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
280overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
281a case where you do mean to lose history.
282
283
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284Examples
285--------
286
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287git push::
288 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
289 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
290 configured for the current branch).
291
292git push origin::
293 Without additional configuration, works like
294 `git push origin :`.
295+
296The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
297configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
298+
299For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
300use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
301the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
302`git push origin`.
303
304git push origin :::
305 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
306 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
307 description of "matching" branches.
308
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309git push origin master::
310 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
311 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
312 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
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313 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
314 created.
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316git push origin HEAD::
317 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
318 remote.
bb9fca80 319
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320git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
321 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
322 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
323 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
324 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
bb9fca80 325
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326git push origin HEAD:master::
327 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
328 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
329 branch without thinking about its local name.
330
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331git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
332 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
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333 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
334 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
335 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
336 the ref name on its own will work.
4e560158 337
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338git push origin :experimental::
339 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
340 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
341
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342git push origin {plus}dev:master::
343 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
344 allowing non-fast forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
345 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
346 following situation, where a fast forward is not possible:
347+
348----
349 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
350 \
351 X---Y---Z dev
352----
353+
354The above command would change the origin repository to
355+
356----
357 A---B (unnamed branch)
358 /
359 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
360----
361+
362Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
363and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
364a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
365
17507832 366
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367Author
368------
59eb68aa 369Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
25fb6290 370by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
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371
372Documentation
373--------------
374Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
375
376GIT
377---
9e1f0a85 378Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite