am, rebase: teach quiet option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rebase.txt
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1git-rebase(1)
2=============
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3
4NAME
5----
c3f0baac 6git-rebase - Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
e448ff87 10[verse]
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11'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--onto <newbase>]
12 <upstream> [<branch>]
13'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] --onto <newbase>
14 --root [<branch>]
15
b1889c36 16'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort
031321c6 17
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18DESCRIPTION
19-----------
ba020ef5 20If <branch> is specified, 'git-rebase' will perform an automatic
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21`git checkout <branch>` before doing anything else. Otherwise
22it remains on the current branch.
23
24All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not
25in <upstream> are saved to a temporary area. This is the same set
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26of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD` (or
27`git log HEAD`, if --root is specified).
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28
29The current branch is reset to <upstream>, or <newbase> if the
30--onto option was supplied. This has the exact same effect as
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31`git reset --hard <upstream>` (or <newbase>). ORIG_HEAD is set
32to point at the tip of the branch before the reset.
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33
34The commits that were previously saved into the temporary area are
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35then reapplied to the current branch, one by one, in order. Note that
36any commits in HEAD which introduce the same textual changes as a commit
37in HEAD..<upstream> are omitted (i.e., a patch already accepted upstream
38with a different commit message or timestamp will be skipped).
69a60af5 39
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40It is possible that a merge failure will prevent this process from being
41completely automatic. You will have to resolve any such merge failure
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42and run `git rebase --continue`. Another option is to bypass the commit
43that caused the merge failure with `git rebase --skip`. To restore the
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44original <branch> and remove the .git/rebase-apply working files, use the
45command `git rebase --abort` instead.
031321c6 46
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47Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "topic":
48
031321c6 49------------
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50 A---B---C topic
51 /
52 D---E---F---G master
031321c6 53------------
69a60af5 54
228382ae 55From this point, the result of either of the following commands:
69a60af5 56
031321c6 57
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58 git rebase master
59 git rebase master topic
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60
61would be:
62
031321c6 63------------
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64 A'--B'--C' topic
65 /
66 D---E---F---G master
031321c6 67------------
69a60af5 68
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69The latter form is just a short-hand of `git checkout topic`
70followed by `git rebase master`.
69a60af5 71
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72If the upstream branch already contains a change you have made (e.g.,
73because you mailed a patch which was applied upstream), then that commit
b1889c36 74will be skipped. For example, running `git rebase master` on the
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75following history (in which A' and A introduce the same set of changes,
76but have different committer information):
77
78------------
79 A---B---C topic
80 /
81 D---E---A'---F master
82------------
83
84will result in:
85
86------------
87 B'---C' topic
88 /
89 D---E---A'---F master
90------------
91
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92Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one
93branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch
94from the latter branch, using `rebase --onto`.
69a60af5 95
e52775f4 96First let's assume your 'topic' is based on branch 'next'.
e2b850b2 97For example, a feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
e52775f4 98functionality which is found in 'next'.
69a60af5 99
031321c6 100------------
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101 o---o---o---o---o master
102 \
103 o---o---o---o---o next
104 \
105 o---o---o topic
106------------
107
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108We want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master'; for example,
109because the functionality on which 'topic' depends was merged into the
110more stable 'master' branch. We want our tree to look like this:
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111
112------------
113 o---o---o---o---o master
114 | \
115 | o'--o'--o' topic
116 \
117 o---o---o---o---o next
031321c6 118------------
7fc9d69f 119
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120We can get this using the following command:
121
b1889c36 122 git rebase --onto master next topic
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123
124
125Another example of --onto option is to rebase part of a
126branch. If we have the following situation:
127
128------------
129 H---I---J topicB
130 /
131 E---F---G topicA
132 /
133 A---B---C---D master
134------------
135
136then the command
137
b1889c36 138 git rebase --onto master topicA topicB
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139
140would result in:
141
142------------
143 H'--I'--J' topicB
144 /
145 | E---F---G topicA
146 |/
147 A---B---C---D master
148------------
149
150This is useful when topicB does not depend on topicA.
151
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152A range of commits could also be removed with rebase. If we have
153the following situation:
154
155------------
156 E---F---G---H---I---J topicA
157------------
158
159then the command
160
b1889c36 161 git rebase --onto topicA~5 topicA~3 topicA
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162
163would result in the removal of commits F and G:
164
165------------
166 E---H'---I'---J' topicA
167------------
168
169This is useful if F and G were flawed in some way, or should not be
170part of topicA. Note that the argument to --onto and the <upstream>
171parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
172
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173In case of conflict, 'git-rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
174and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git-diff' to locate
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175the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
176file you edit, you need to tell git that the conflict has been resolved,
177typically this would be done with
178
179
d7f078b8 180 git add <filename>
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181
182
183After resolving the conflict manually and updating the index with the
184desired resolution, you can continue the rebasing process with
185
186
187 git rebase --continue
8978d043 188
8978d043 189
ba020ef5 190Alternatively, you can undo the 'git-rebase' with
8978d043 191
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192
193 git rebase --abort
8978d043 194
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195CONFIGURATION
196-------------
197
198rebase.stat::
199 Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
200 rebase. False by default.
201
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202OPTIONS
203-------
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204<newbase>::
205 Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the
206 --onto option is not specified, the starting point is
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207 <upstream>. May be any valid commit, and not just an
208 existing branch name.
69a60af5 209
52a22d1e 210<upstream>::
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211 Upstream branch to compare against. May be any valid commit,
212 not just an existing branch name.
7fc9d69f 213
228382ae 214<branch>::
52a22d1e 215 Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
7fc9d69f 216
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217--continue::
218 Restart the rebasing process after having resolved a merge conflict.
219
220--abort::
221 Restore the original branch and abort the rebase operation.
222
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223--skip::
224 Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
58634dbf 225
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226-m::
227--merge::
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228 Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
229 strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the
230 upstream side.
231
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232-s <strategy>::
233--strategy=<strategy>::
06f39190 234 Use the given merge strategy.
58634dbf 235 If there is no `-s` option, a built-in list of strategies
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236 is used instead ('git-merge-recursive' when merging a single
237 head, 'git-merge-octopus' otherwise). This implies --merge.
58634dbf 238
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239-q::
240--quiet::
241 Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
242
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243-v::
244--verbose::
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245 Be verbose. Implies --stat.
246
247--stat::
248 Show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. The
249 diffstat is also controlled by the configuration option rebase.stat.
250
251-n::
252--no-stat::
253 Do not show a diffstat as part of the rebase process.
b758789c 254
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255--no-verify::
256 This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
257
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258-C<n>::
259 Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
260 and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
261 context exist they all must match. By default no context is
262 ever ignored.
263
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264-f::
265--force-rebase::
266 Force the rebase even if the current branch is a descendant
267 of the commit you are rebasing onto. Normally the command will
268 exit with the message "Current branch is up to date" in such a
269 situation.
270
749485f6 271--whitespace=<option>::
ba020ef5 272 This flag is passed to the 'git-apply' program
5162e697 273 (see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
7fe54385 274 Incompatible with the --interactive option.
059f446d 275
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276--committer-date-is-author-date::
277--ignore-date::
278 These flags are passed to 'git-am' to easily change the dates
279 of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
280
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281-i::
282--interactive::
1b1dce4b 283 Make a list of the commits which are about to be rebased. Let the
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284 user edit that list before rebasing. This mode can also be used to
285 split commits (see SPLITTING COMMITS below).
1b1dce4b 286
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287-p::
288--preserve-merges::
f8cca019 289 Instead of ignoring merges, try to recreate them.
f09c9b8c 290
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291--root::
292 Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
293 limiting them with an <upstream>. This allows you to rebase
294 the root commit(s) on a branch. Must be used with --onto, and
295 will skip changes already contained in <newbase> (instead of
296 <upstream>). When used together with --preserve-merges, 'all'
297 root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
298 instead.
299
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300include::merge-strategies.txt[]
301
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302NOTES
303-----
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304
305You should understand the implications of using 'git-rebase' on a
306repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
307below.
031321c6 308
467c0197 309When the git-rebase command is run, it will first execute a "pre-rebase"
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310hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity checks and
311reject the rebase if it isn't appropriate. Please see the template
312pre-rebase hook script for an example.
313
702088af 314Upon completion, <branch> will be the current branch.
031321c6 315
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316INTERACTIVE MODE
317----------------
318
319Rebasing interactively means that you have a chance to edit the commits
320which are rebased. You can reorder the commits, and you can
321remove them (weeding out bad or otherwise unwanted patches).
322
323The interactive mode is meant for this type of workflow:
324
3251. have a wonderful idea
3262. hack on the code
3273. prepare a series for submission
3284. submit
329
330where point 2. consists of several instances of
331
332a. regular use
333 1. finish something worthy of a commit
334 2. commit
335b. independent fixup
336 1. realize that something does not work
337 2. fix that
338 3. commit it
339
340Sometimes the thing fixed in b.2. cannot be amended to the not-quite
341perfect commit it fixes, because that commit is buried deeply in a
342patch series. That is exactly what interactive rebase is for: use it
343after plenty of "a"s and "b"s, by rearranging and editing
344commits, and squashing multiple commits into one.
345
346Start it with the last commit you want to retain as-is:
347
348 git rebase -i <after-this-commit>
349
350An editor will be fired up with all the commits in your current branch
351(ignoring merge commits), which come after the given commit. You can
352reorder the commits in this list to your heart's content, and you can
353remove them. The list looks more or less like this:
354
355-------------------------------------------
356pick deadbee The oneline of this commit
357pick fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit
358...
359-------------------------------------------
360
ba020ef5 361The oneline descriptions are purely for your pleasure; 'git-rebase' will
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362not look at them but at the commit names ("deadbee" and "fa1afe1" in this
363example), so do not delete or edit the names.
364
365By replacing the command "pick" with the command "edit", you can tell
ba020ef5 366'git-rebase' to stop after applying that commit, so that you can edit
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367the files and/or the commit message, amend the commit, and continue
368rebasing.
369
370If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
371"pick" with "squash" for the second and subsequent commit. If the
372commits had different authors, it will attribute the squashed commit to
81ab1cb4 373the author of the first commit.
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374
375In both cases, or when a "pick" does not succeed (because of merge
376errors), the loop will stop to let you fix things, and you can continue
377the loop with `git rebase --continue`.
378
379For example, if you want to reorder the last 5 commits, such that what
380was HEAD~4 becomes the new HEAD. To achieve that, you would call
ba020ef5 381'git-rebase' like this:
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382
383----------------------
384$ git rebase -i HEAD~5
385----------------------
386
387And move the first patch to the end of the list.
388
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389You might want to preserve merges, if you have a history like this:
390
391------------------
392 X
393 \
394 A---M---B
395 /
396---o---O---P---Q
397------------------
398
399Suppose you want to rebase the side branch starting at "A" to "Q". Make
400sure that the current HEAD is "B", and call
401
402-----------------------------
403$ git rebase -i -p --onto Q O
404-----------------------------
405
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406
407SPLITTING COMMITS
408-----------------
409
410In interactive mode, you can mark commits with the action "edit". However,
ba020ef5 411this does not necessarily mean that 'git-rebase' expects the result of this
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412edit to be exactly one commit. Indeed, you can undo the commit, or you can
413add other commits. This can be used to split a commit into two:
414
483bc4f0 415- Start an interactive rebase with `git rebase -i <commit>^`, where
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416 <commit> is the commit you want to split. In fact, any commit range
417 will do, as long as it contains that commit.
418
419- Mark the commit you want to split with the action "edit".
420
483bc4f0 421- When it comes to editing that commit, execute `git reset HEAD^`. The
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422 effect is that the HEAD is rewound by one, and the index follows suit.
423 However, the working tree stays the same.
424
425- Now add the changes to the index that you want to have in the first
483bc4f0 426 commit. You can use `git add` (possibly interactively) or
ba020ef5 427 'git-gui' (or both) to do that.
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428
429- Commit the now-current index with whatever commit message is appropriate
430 now.
431
432- Repeat the last two steps until your working tree is clean.
433
483bc4f0 434- Continue the rebase with `git rebase --continue`.
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435
436If you are not absolutely sure that the intermediate revisions are
437consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use
ba020ef5 438'git-stash' to stash away the not-yet-committed changes
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439after each commit, test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.
440
441
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442RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
443-------------------------------
444
445Rebasing (or any other form of rewriting) a branch that others have
446based work on is a bad idea: anyone downstream of it is forced to
447manually fix their history. This section explains how to do the fix
448from the downstream's point of view. The real fix, however, would be
449to avoid rebasing the upstream in the first place.
450
451To illustrate, suppose you are in a situation where someone develops a
452'subsystem' branch, and you are working on a 'topic' that is dependent
453on this 'subsystem'. You might end up with a history like the
454following:
455
456------------
457 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
458 \
459 o---o---o---o---o subsystem
460 \
461 *---*---* topic
462------------
463
464If 'subsystem' is rebased against 'master', the following happens:
465
466------------
467 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
468 \ \
469 o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
470 \
471 *---*---* topic
472------------
473
474If you now continue development as usual, and eventually merge 'topic'
475to 'subsystem', the commits from 'subsystem' will remain duplicated forever:
476
477------------
478 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
479 \ \
480 o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o'--M subsystem
481 \ /
482 *---*---*-..........-*--* topic
483------------
484
485Such duplicates are generally frowned upon because they clutter up
486history, making it harder to follow. To clean things up, you need to
487transplant the commits on 'topic' to the new 'subsystem' tip, i.e.,
488rebase 'topic'. This becomes a ripple effect: anyone downstream from
489'topic' is forced to rebase too, and so on!
490
491There are two kinds of fixes, discussed in the following subsections:
492
493Easy case: The changes are literally the same.::
494
495 This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase was a simple rebase and
496 had no conflicts.
497
498Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
499
500 This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
501 `\--interactive` to omit, edit, or squash commits; or if the
502 upstream used one of `commit \--amend`, `reset`, or
503 `filter-branch`.
504
505
506The easy case
507~~~~~~~~~~~~~
508
509Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
510'subsystem' are literally the same before and after the rebase
511'subsystem' did.
512
513In that case, the fix is easy because 'git-rebase' knows to skip
514changes that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say
515(assuming you're on 'topic')
516------------
517 $ git rebase subsystem
518------------
519you will end up with the fixed history
520------------
521 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
522 \
523 o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
524 \
525 *---*---* topic
526------------
527
528
529The hard case
530~~~~~~~~~~~~~
531
532Things get more complicated if the 'subsystem' changes do not exactly
533correspond to the ones before the rebase.
534
535NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
536 even in the hard case, it may have unintended consequences. For
537 example, a commit that was removed via `git rebase
538 \--interactive` will be **resurrected**!
539
540The idea is to manually tell 'git-rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
541ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
542between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
543of the old 'subsystem', for example:
544
545* With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git-fetch', the old tip of
546 'subsystem' is at `subsystem@\{1}`. Subsequent fetches will
547 increase the number. (See linkgit:git-reflog[1].)
548
549* Relative to the tip of 'topic': knowing that your 'topic' has three
550 commits, the old tip of 'subsystem' must be `topic~3`.
551
552You can then transplant the old `subsystem..topic` to the new tip by
553saying (for the reflog case, and assuming you are on 'topic' already):
554------------
555 $ git rebase --onto subsystem subsystem@{1}
556------------
557
558The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
559'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
560case" recovery too!
561
562
1b1dce4b 563Authors
7fc9d69f 564------
59eb68aa 565Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> and
1b1dce4b 566Johannes E. Schindelin <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de>
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567
568Documentation
569--------------
570Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
571
572GIT
573---
9e1f0a85 574Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite