checkout -m: recreate merge when checking out of unmerged index
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
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1git-checkout(1)
2===============
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3
4NAME
5----
76ce9462 6git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
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7
8SYNOPSIS
9--------
71bb1033 10[verse]
b1889c36 11'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [[--track | --no-track] -b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
0cf8581e 12'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
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13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
4aaa7027 16
71bb1033 17When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
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18updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
19branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
71bb1033 20specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
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21be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
22options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
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23
24When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
25branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
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26the index file, or from a named commit. In
27this case, the `-b` options is meaningless and giving
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28either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
29used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
30to update the index for the given paths before updating the
31working tree.
4aaa7027 32
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33The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
34default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
35checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
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36Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
37specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
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38using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
39file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
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40
41OPTIONS
42-------
6124aee5 43-q::
2be7fcb4 44 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
6124aee5 45
0270f7c5 46-f::
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47 When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
48 working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
49 local changes.
50+
51When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
52entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
0270f7c5 53
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54--ours::
55--theirs::
56 When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
57 ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
58
0270f7c5 59-b::
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60 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
61 <branch>. The new branch name must pass all checks defined
5162e697 62 by linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
2b1f4247 63 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
7fc9d69f 64
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65-t::
66--track::
ba020ef5 67 When creating a new branch, set up configuration so that 'git-pull'
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68 will automatically retrieve data from the start point, which must be
69 a branch. Use this if you always pull from the same upstream branch
70 into the new branch, and if you don't want to use "git pull
71 <repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
72 when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
73 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
ba020ef5 74 'git-checkout' and 'git-branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
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75 given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
76 start-point is either a local or remote branch.
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77
78--no-track::
572fc81d 79 Ignore the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable.
0746d19a 80
969d326d 81-l::
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82 Create the new branch's reflog. This activates recording of
83 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
967506bb 84 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
969d326d 85
1be0659e 86-m::
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87 When switching branches,
88 if you have local modifications to one or more files that
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89 are different between the current branch and the branch to
90 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
91 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
92 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
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93 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
94 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
95+
96When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
97paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
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98and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
99should result in deletion of the path).
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100+
101When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
102the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
1be0659e 103
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104<new_branch>::
105 Name for the new branch.
7fc9d69f 106
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107<branch>::
108 Branch to checkout; may be any object ID that resolves to a
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109 commit. Defaults to HEAD.
110+
111When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
112your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
113
114
115Detached HEAD
116-------------
117
118It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
119not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
120example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
121point, like this:
122
123------------
124$ git checkout v2.6.18
125------------
126
127Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
128create a temporary branch using `-b` option, but starting from
129version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
130current branch and directly point at the commit named by the tag
131(`v2.6.18` in the above example).
132
133You can use usual git commands while in this state. You can use
b1889c36 134`git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
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135example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
136a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
137merge $othercommit`.
138
139The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
140by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
141What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
142and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
143checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
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144garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
145the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
146
147------------
148$ git log -g -2 HEAD
149------------
7fc9d69f 150
4aaa7027 151
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152EXAMPLES
153--------
4aaa7027 154
1be0659e 155. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
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156the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
157mistake, and gets it back from the index.
1be0659e 158+
4aaa7027 159------------
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160$ git checkout master <1>
161$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
4aaa7027 162$ rm -f hello.c
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163$ git checkout hello.c <3>
164------------
165+
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166<1> switch branch
167<2> take out a file out of other commit
48aeecdc 168<3> restore hello.c from HEAD of current branch
1be0659e 169+
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170If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
171step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
172You should instead write:
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174------------
175$ git checkout -- hello.c
176------------
177
1be0659e 178. After working in a wrong branch, switching to the correct
71bb1033 179branch would be done using:
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180+
181------------
182$ git checkout mytopic
183------------
184+
185However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
186differ in files that you have locally modified, in which case,
187the above checkout would fail like this:
188+
189------------
190$ git checkout mytopic
191fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
192------------
193+
194You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
195three-way merge:
196+
197------------
198$ git checkout -m mytopic
199Auto-merging frotz
200------------
201+
202After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
203registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
204changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
205
206. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
207the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
208+
209------------
210$ git checkout -m mytopic
211Auto-merging frotz
212merge: warning: conflicts during merge
213ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
214fatal: merge program failed
215------------
216+
217At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
218the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
219files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
d7f078b8 220`git add` as usual:
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221+
222------------
223$ edit frotz
d7f078b8 224$ git add frotz
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225------------
226
4aaa7027 227
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228Author
229------
230Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
231
232Documentation
233--------------
234Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
235
236GIT
237---
9e1f0a85 238Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite