reflog inspection: introduce shortcut "-g"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rev-list.txt
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1git-rev-list(1)
2===============
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3
4NAME
5----
6git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
7
8
9SYNOPSIS
10--------
353ce815 11[verse]
69e0c256 12'git-rev-list' [ \--max-count=number ]
d5db6c9e 13 [ \--skip=number ]
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14 [ \--max-age=timestamp ]
15 [ \--min-age=timestamp ]
16 [ \--sparse ]
17 [ \--no-merges ]
93b74bca 18 [ \--remove-empty ]
0d2c9d67 19 [ \--not ]
353ce815 20 [ \--all ]
42cabc34 21 [ \--stdin ]
765ac8ec 22 [ \--topo-order ]
353ce815 23 [ \--parents ]
7cbcf4d5 24 [ \--encoding[=<encoding>] ]
bd95fcd3 25 [ \--(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
ec579767 26 [ [\--objects | \--objects-edge] [ \--unpacked ] ]
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27 [ \--pretty | \--header ]
28 [ \--bisect ]
d249b455 29 [ \--merge ]
4d12a471 30 [ \--walk-reflogs ]
353ce815 31 <commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
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32
33DESCRIPTION
34-----------
8c02eee2 35
2cf565c5 36Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order starting at the
adcd3512 37given commit(s), taking ancestry relationship into account. This is
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38useful to produce human-readable log output.
39
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40Commits which are stated with a preceding '{caret}' cause listing to
41stop at that point. Their parents are implied. Thus the following
42command:
43
44-----------------------------------------------------------------------
45 $ git-rev-list foo bar ^baz
46-----------------------------------------------------------------------
47
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48means "list all the commits which are included in 'foo' and 'bar', but
49not in 'baz'".
50
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51A special notation "'<commit1>'..'<commit2>'" can be used as a
52short-hand for "{caret}'<commit1>' '<commit2>'". For example, either of
53the following may be used interchangeably:
69e0c256 54
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55-----------------------------------------------------------------------
56 $ git-rev-list origin..HEAD
57 $ git-rev-list HEAD ^origin
58-----------------------------------------------------------------------
59
60Another special notation is "'<commit1>'...'<commit2>'" which is useful
61for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference
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62between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
63
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64-----------------------------------------------------------------------
65 $ git-rev-list A B --not $(git-merge-base --all A B)
66 $ git-rev-list A...B
67-----------------------------------------------------------------------
68
69gitlink:git-rev-list[1] is a very essential git program, since it
70provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
71this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
72used by commands as different as gitlink:git-bisect[1] and
73gitlink:git-repack[1].
69e0c256 74
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75OPTIONS
76-------
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77
78Commit Formatting
79~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
80
81Using these options, gitlink:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
82more specialized family of commit log tools: gitlink:git-log[1],
83gitlink:git-show[1], and gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]
84
5d1faf87 85include::pretty-formats.txt[]
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86
87--relative-date::
88
89 Show dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".
90 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
91 as when using "--pretty".
df8baa42 92
69e0c256 93--header::
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94
95 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
96 separated with a NUL character.
69e0c256 97
f443455a 98--parents::
8c02eee2 99
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100 Print the parents of the commit.
101
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102Diff Formatting
103~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
df8baa42 104
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105Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106Some of them are specific to gitlink:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107options may be given. See gitlink:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
ec579767 108
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109-c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117--cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
120 patch output by omitting hunks that show differences from only
121 one parent, or show the same change from all but one parent for
122 an Octopus merge.
123
124-r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128-t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
131
132Commit Limiting
133~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
134
135Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
136special notations explained in the description, additional commit
137limiting may be applied.
138
139--
140
141-n 'number', --max-count='number'::
69e0c256 142
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143 Limit the number of commits output.
144
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145--skip='number'::
146
147 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
148
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149--since='date', --after='date'::
150
151 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
152
153--until='date', --before='date'::
69e0c256 154
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155 Show commits older than a specific date.
156
157--max-age='timestamp', --min-age='timestamp'::
158
159 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
69e0c256 160
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161--author='pattern', --committer='pattern'::
162
163 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
164 header lines that match the specified pattern.
165
166--grep='pattern'::
167
168 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
169 matches the specified pattern.
170
93b74bca 171--remove-empty::
8c02eee2 172
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173 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
174
f443455a 175--no-merges::
8c02eee2 176
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177 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
178
0d2c9d67 179--not::
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180
181 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
182 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
0d2c9d67 183
69e0c256 184--all::
69e0c256 185
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186 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
187 command line as '<commit>'.
69e0c256 188
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189--stdin::
190
191 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
192 line, read them from the standard input.
193
084ae0a7 194-g, --walk-reflogs::
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195
196 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
197 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
198 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
199 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
200 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
201+
202With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
203this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
204taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@{Nth}' notation is
205used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
206'commit@{now}', output also uses 'commit@{timestamp}' notation
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207instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
208prefixed with this information on the same line.
911cedc9 209
d249b455 210--merge::
8c02eee2 211
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212 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
213 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
214
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215--boundary::
216
217 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
218 not shown.
219
220--dense, --sparse::
221
222When optional paths are given, the default behaviour ('--dense') is to
223only output commits that changes at least one of them, and also ignore
224merges that do not touch the given paths.
225
226Use the '--sparse' flag to makes the command output all eligible commits
227(still subject to count and age limitation), but apply merge
228simplification nevertheless.
229
230--bisect::
231
232Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
233the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
234
235-----------------------------------------------------------------------
236 $ git-rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
237-----------------------------------------------------------------------
238
239outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
240
241-----------------------------------------------------------------------
242 $ git-rev-list foo ^midpoint
243 $ git-rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
244-----------------------------------------------------------------------
245
246would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
247introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
248generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
249one.
250
251--
252
253Commit Ordering
254~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
255
256By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
257
258--topo-order::
259
260 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
261 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
262
263--date-order::
264
265 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
266 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
267 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
268
269Object Traversal
270~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
271
272These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
273
274--objects::
275
276 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
277 commits. 'git-rev-list --objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
278 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
279 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
280
281--objects-edge::
282
283 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
284 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
285 gitlink:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
286 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
287 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
288
289--unpacked::
290
291 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
292 in packs.
3dfb9278 293
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294Author
295------
296Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
297
298Documentation
299--------------
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300Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano, Jonas Fonseca
301and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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302
303GIT
304---
a7154e91 305Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite