[PATCH] plug memory leak in diff.c::diff_free_filepair()
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
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7984eabe 1git(7)
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6c84e2e0 3May 2005
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4
5NAME
6----
7git - the stupid content tracker
8
9
10SYNOPSIS
11--------
12'git-<command>' <args>
13
14DESCRIPTION
15-----------
16
17This is reference information for the core git commands.
18
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19The Discussion section below contains much useful definition and
20clarification info - read that first. And of the commands, I suggest
21reading link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache] and
22link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree] first - I wish I had!
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23
24David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
2508/05/05
26
27Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 to
28reflect recent changes.
29
30Commands Overview
31-----------------
32The git commands can helpfully be split into those that manipulate
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33the repository, the cache and the working fileset, those that
34interrogate and compare them, and those that moves objects and
35references between repositories.
2cf565c5 36
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37In addition, git itself comes with a spartan set of porcelain
38commands. They are usable but are not meant to compete with real
39Porcelains.
40
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41There are also some ancilliary programs that can be viewed as useful
42aids for using the core commands but which are unlikely to be used by
43SCMs layered over git.
44
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45Manipulation commands
46~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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47link:git-checkout-cache.html[git-checkout-cache]::
48 Copy files from the cache to the working directory
49
50link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]::
51 Creates a new commit object
52
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53link:git-init-db.html[git-init-db]::
54 Creates an empty git object database
55
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56link:git-merge-base.html[git-merge-base]::
57 Finds as good a common ancestor as possible for a merge
58
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59link:git-mktag.html[git-mktag]::
60 Creates a tag object
61
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62link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree]::
63 Reads tree information into the directory cache
64
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65link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache]::
66 Modifies the index or directory cache
67
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68link:git-hash-object.html[git-hash-object]::
69 Computes the object ID from a file.
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70
71link:git-write-tree.html[git-write-tree]::
72 Creates a tree from the current cache
73
74Interrogation commands
75~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
76link:git-cat-file.html[git-cat-file]::
77 Provide content or type information for repository objects
78
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79link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache]::
80 Compares content and mode of blobs between the cache and repository
81
82link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files]::
83 Compares files in the working tree and the cache
84
85link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]::
86 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
87
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88link:git-export.html[git-export]::
89 Exports each commit and a diff against each of its parents
90
91link:git-fsck-cache.html[git-fsck-cache]::
92 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database
93
94link:git-ls-files.html[git-ls-files]::
95 Information about files in the cache/working directory
96
97link:git-ls-tree.html[git-ls-tree]::
98 Displays a tree object in human readable form
99
100link:git-merge-cache.html[git-merge-cache]::
101 Runs a merge for files needing merging
102
103link:git-rev-list.html[git-rev-list]::
104 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
105
106link:git-rev-tree.html[git-rev-tree]::
107 Provides the revision tree for one or more commits
108
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109link:git-tar-tree.html[git-tar-tree]::
110 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree
111
112link:git-unpack-file.html[git-unpack-file]::
113 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents
114
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115link:git-var.html[git-var]::
116 Displays a git logical variable
117
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118link:git-verify-pack.html[git-verify-pack]::
119 Validates packed GIT archive files
120
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121The interrogate commands may create files - and you can force them to
122touch the working file set - but in general they don't
123
124
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125Synching repositories
126~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
127
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128link:git-clone-script.html[git-clone-script]::
129 Clones a repository into the current repository (user interface)
130
131link:git-clone-pack.html[git-clone-pack]::
132 Clones a repository into the current repository (engine
133 for ssh and local transport)
134
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135link:git-http-pull.html[git-http-pull]::
136 Downloads a remote GIT repository via HTTP
137
138link:git-local-pull.html[git-local-pull]::
139 Duplicates another GIT repository on a local system
140
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141link:git-ssh-pull.html[git-ssh-pull]::
142 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection
143
144link:git-send-pack.html[git-send-pack]::
145 Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
146
147link:git-receive-pack.html[git-receive-pack]::
148 Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
149
150link:git-clone-pack.html[git-clone-pack]::
151 Clones from a remote repository.
152
153link:git-fetch-pack.html[git-fetch-pack]::
154 Updates from a remote repository.
155
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156link:git-peek-remote.html[git-peek-remote]::
157 Lists references on a remote repository using upload-pack protocol.
158
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159link:git-upload-pack.html[git-upload-pack]::
160 Invoked by 'git-clone-pack' and 'git-fetch-pack' to push
161 what are asked for.
162
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163link:git-update-server-info.html[git-update-server-info]::
164 Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
165 clients discover references and packs on it.
166
2f2de9b4 167
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168Porcelainish Commands
169---------------------
170link:git-fetch-script.html[git-fetch-script]::
171 Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
172
173link:git-pull-script.html[git-pull-script]::
174 Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
175
176link:git-commit-script.html[git-commit-script]::
177 Record changes to the repository.
178
179
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180Ancilliary Commands
181-------------------
182Manipulators:
183
184link:git-apply-patch-script.html[git-apply-patch-script]::
185 Sample script to apply the diffs from git-diff-*
186
187link:git-convert-cache.html[git-convert-cache]::
188 Converts old-style GIT repository
189
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190link:git-merge-one-file-script.html[git-merge-one-file-script]::
191 The standard helper program to use with "git-merge-cache"
192
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193link:git-prune-script.html[git-prune-script]::
194 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database
195
196link:git-resolve-script.html[git-resolve-script]::
197 Script used to merge two trees
198
199link:git-tag-script.html[git-tag-script]::
200 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG
201
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202
203Interogators:
204
99665af5 205link:git-diff-helper.html[git-diff-helper]::
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206 Generates patch format output for git-diff-*
207
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208link:git-ssh-push.html[git-ssh-push]::
209 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-pull
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210
211
212
6c84e2e0 213Identifier Terminology
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214----------------------
215<object>::
6c84e2e0 216 Indicates the sha1 identifier for any type of object
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217
218<blob>::
219 Indicates a blob object sha1 identifier
220
221<tree>::
222 Indicates a tree object sha1 identifier
223
224<commit>::
225 Indicates a commit object sha1 identifier
226
227<tree-ish>::
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228 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object sha1 identifier. A
229 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
230 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
231 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
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232
233<type>::
234 Indicates that an object type is required.
235 Currently one of: blob/tree/commit/tag
236
237<file>::
238 Indicates a filename - always relative to the root of
239 the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
240
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241Symbolic Identifiers
242--------------------
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243Any git comand accepting any <object> can also use the following
244symbolic notation:
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245
246HEAD::
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247 indicates the head of the repository (ie the contents of
248 `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`)
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249<tag>::
250 a valid tag 'name'+
251 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`)
252<head>::
253 a valid head 'name'+
254 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`)
255<snap>::
256 a valid snapshot 'name'+
257 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/snap/<snap>`)
258
259
260File/Directory Structure
261------------------------
262The git-core manipulates the following areas in the directory:
263
264 .git/ The base (overridden with $GIT_DIR)
265 objects/ The object base (overridden with $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY)
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266 ??/ 'First 2 chars of object' directories.
267 pack/ Packed archives.
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268
269 refs/ Directories containing symbolic names for objects
270 (each file contains the hex SHA1 + newline)
271 heads/ Commits which are heads of various sorts
272 tags/ Tags, by the tag name (or some local renaming of it)
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273 */ Any other subdirectory of refs/ can be used to store
274 files similar to what are under refs/heads/.
275 HEAD Symlink to refs/heads/<current-branch-name>
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276
277Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
278GIT_DIR.
279
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280Terminology
281-----------
6c84e2e0 282Each line contains terms which you may see used interchangeably
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283
284 object database, .git directory
285 directory cache, index
286 id, sha1, sha1-id, sha1 hash
287 type, tag
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288
289
290Environment Variables
291---------------------
292Various git commands use the following environment variables:
293
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294The git Repository
295~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
296These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
297is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
298git so take care if using Cogito etc
299
300'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
301 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
302 cache/index file. If not specified, the default of
303 `$GIT_DIR/index` is used.
304
305'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
306 If the object storage directory is specified via this
307 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
308 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
309 directory is used.
310
311'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
312 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
313 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
314 specifies a ":" seperated list of git object directories which
315 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
316 written to these directories.
317
318'GIT_DIR'::
319 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies
320 a path to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the
321 repository.
322
323git Commits
324~~~~~~~~~~~
325'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
326'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
327'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
328'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
329'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
330 see link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]
331
332git Diffs
333~~~~~~~~~
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334'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
335'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
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336 see the "generating patches" section in :
337 link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache];
338 link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files];
339 link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]
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341Discussion
342----------
343include::../README[]
344
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345Author
346------
6c84e2e0 347Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
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348
349Documentation
350--------------
351Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
352
353GIT
354---
355Part of the link:git.html[git] suite
356