test: allow prerequisite to be evaluated lazily
[git/git.git] / t / README
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1Core GIT Tests
2==============
3
4This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6and read their output.
7
8When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14Running Tests
15-------------
16
17The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
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21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
986aa7f1 24 ...
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25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
85b0b34e 36be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
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37powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48--state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
986aa7f1 52
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53You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
54in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
55GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.
56
57 $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test
58
5099b99d 59You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
986aa7f1 60
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61 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
62 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
63 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
64 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
65 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
66 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
67 # passed all 5 test(s)
68 1..5
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69
70You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
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71(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
72appropriately before running "make".
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73
74--verbose::
75 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
76 command being run and their output if any are also
77 output.
78
79--debug::
80 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
81 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
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82 The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
83 during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
84 failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
85 the test finished.
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86
87--immediate::
88 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
89 failed test.
90
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91--long-tests::
92 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
93 available), for more exhaustive testing.
94
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95--valgrind::
96 Execute all Git binaries with valgrind and exit with status
97 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will only stop
98 the test script when running under -i). Valgrind errors
99 go to stderr, so you might want to pass the -v option, too.
986aa7f1 100
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101 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
102 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
103 convenience, it also implies --tee.
104
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105 Note that valgrind is run with the option --leak-check=no,
106 as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
107 interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
108 conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
109 the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
110 't/valgrind/bin/'.
111
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112--tee::
113 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
114 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
115 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
116 run the tests with this option in parallel.
117
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118--with-dashes::
119 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
120 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
121 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
122 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
123 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
124 implied by other options like --valgrind and
125 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
126
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127--root=<directory>::
128 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
129 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
130 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
131 can massively speed up the test suite.
132
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133You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
134the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
135You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
136test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
137If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
138your built version instead.
139
140When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
141override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
142GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
143GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
144
145
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146Skipping Tests
147--------------
148
149In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
150due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
151filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
152as pathnames.
153
154You should be able to say something like
155
156 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
157
158and even:
159
160 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
161
162to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
163SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
164and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
165test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
166particular test to skip.
167
168Note that some tests in the existing test suite rely on previous
169test item, so you cannot arbitrarily disable one and expect the
170remainder of test to check what the test originally was intended
171to check.
172
173
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174Naming Tests
175------------
176
177The test files are named as:
178
179 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
180
181where N is a decimal digit.
182
183First digit tells the family:
184
185 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
186 1 - the basic commands concerning database
187 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
188 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
189 4 - the diff commands
190 5 - the pull and exporting commands
191 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
8f4a9b62 192 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
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193 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
194 9 - the git tools
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195
196Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
197
198Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
199we are testing.
200
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201If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
202the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
203pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
63d32945 204top-level test script and tries to run all of them. Care is
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205especially needed if you are creating a common test library
206file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
207not be suitable for standalone execution.
208
f50c9f76 209
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210Writing Tests
211-------------
212
213The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
214with the standard "#!/bin/sh" with copyright notices, and an
215assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
216
217 #!/bin/sh
218 #
219 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
220 #
221
14cd1ff3 222 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
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223
224 This test registers the following structure in the cache
225 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
226
f50c9f76 227
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228Source 'test-lib.sh'
229--------------------
230
231After assigning test_description, the test script should source
232test-lib.sh like this:
233
234 . ./test-lib.sh
235
236This test harness library does the following things:
237
238 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
239 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
240
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241 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
242 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
243 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
244 the --root option documented above.
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245
246 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
247 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
248 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
249 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
250
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251Do's, don'ts & things to keep in mind
252-------------------------------------
253
6fd45295 254Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
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255when writing tests.
256
257Do:
258
6fd45295 259 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
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260
261 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
6fd45295 262 should be inside a test assertion.
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263
264 - Chain your test assertions
265
266 Write test code like this:
267
268 git merge foo &&
269 git push bar &&
270 test ...
271
272 Instead of:
273
274 git merge hla
275 git push gh
276 test ...
277
278 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
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279 you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
280 helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
281 to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
282 already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
283 test_must_fail.
20873f45 284
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285 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
286 below.
287
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288 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
289 doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
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290 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
291 everything.
292
293 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
294 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
295
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296 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
297 construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
298 $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
299 Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
300 For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.
301
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302Don't:
303
304 - exit() within a <script> part.
305
306 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
307 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
308 "Skipping tests" below).
309
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310 - use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command exits
311 with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()". Instead,
312 use 'test_must_fail git cmd'. This will signal a failure if git
313 dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).
314
315 - use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help our
316 friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
317 the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
318 does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH.
319
320 - use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script can
321 be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).
322
323 - chdir around in tests. It is not sufficient to chdir to
324 somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
325 the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
326 causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory. Do so
327 inside a subshell if necessary.
328
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329 - Break the TAP output
330
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331 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
332 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
333 on their toes in these areas:
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334
335 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
336
337 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
338
6fd45295 339 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
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340 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
341 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
342 their output.
343
344 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
345 (see http://search.cpan.org/perldoc?TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP_Grammar)
346 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
347 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
348
349Keep in mind:
350
6fd45295 351 - Inside <script> part, the standard output and standard error
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352 streams are discarded, and the test harness only reports "ok" or
353 "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under --verbose, they
354 are shown to help debugging the tests.
355
356
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357Skipping tests
358--------------
359
681186ae 360If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
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361of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
362below), e.g.:
363
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364 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
365 "$PERL_PATH" -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
366 '
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367
368The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
369have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
370many tests they're missing.
371
372If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
373outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
374setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
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375
376 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
377 then
378 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
379 test_done
380 fi
14cd1ff3 381
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382The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
383the test was skipped.
384
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385End with test_done
386------------------
387
388Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
389from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
390'test_done'.
391
392
393Test harness library
394--------------------
395
396There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
397library for your script to use.
398
9a897893 399 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 400
72942a61 401 Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
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402 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
403 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
404
405 Example:
406
407 test_expect_success \
408 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
409 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
410
9a897893 411 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
72942a61 412 prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
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413 documentation below:
414
415 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
416 ' ... '
417
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418 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
419 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
420
421 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
422 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
423
9a897893 424 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
986aa7f1 425
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426 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
427 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
428 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
429 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
430 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
431 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
986aa7f1 432
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433 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
434 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
435
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436 - test_debug <script>
437
438 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
439 when the test script is started with --debug command line
440 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
441 development of a new test script.
442
443 - test_done
444
445 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
446 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
447 exit with an appropriate error code.
448
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449 - test_tick
450
451 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
63d32945 452 committer times to defined state. Subsequent calls will
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453 advance the times by a fixed amount.
454
455 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
456
457 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
458 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
459 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
460 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
461 reproducible.
462
463 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
464
465 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
466 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
986aa7f1 467
72942a61 468 - test_set_prereq <prereq>
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469
470 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
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471 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
472 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
473
474 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
475 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
476 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
9a897893 477
72942a61 478 - test_have_prereq <prereq>
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479
480 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with
481 test_set_prereq. The most common use of this directly is to skip
482 all the tests if we don't have some essential prerequisite:
483
484 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
485 then
486 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
487 test_done
488 fi
489
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490 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
491
492 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
493 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
494 work in an external test script.
495
496 test_external \
497 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
498 "$PERL_PATH" "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
499
500 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
501 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
502 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
503
504 # The external test will outputs its own plan
505 test_external_has_tap=1
506
507 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
508
509 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
510 instead of checking the exit code.
511
512 test_external_without_stderr \
513 'Perl API' \
514 "$PERL_PATH" "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
515
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516 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>
517
518 Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
519 For example:
520
521 test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
522 test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
523 '
524
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525 - test_must_fail <git-command>
526
527 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
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528 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
529 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
530 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
531 bug go unnoticed.
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532
533 - test_might_fail <git-command>
534
535 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
536 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
537
538 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
539
540 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
541 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
542 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
543
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544 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>
545
546 Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.
547
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548 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
549 test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
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550 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
551
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552 Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
553 directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
554 and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.
2caf20c5 555
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556 - test_when_finished <script>
557
558 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
559 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
560 fails, the test will not pass.
561
562 Example:
563
564 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
565 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
566 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
567 ...
568 '
569
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570 - test_pause
571
572 This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
573 removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
574 spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
575 the test. Example:
576
577 test_expect_success 'test' '
578 git do-something >actual &&
579 test_pause &&
580 test_cmp expected actual
581 '
582
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583Prerequisites
584-------------
585
586These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
587test_have_prereq.
588
589See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
590library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
591use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
592
593 - PERL & PYTHON
594
595 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease or
596 NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that need Perl or Python in
597 these.
598
599 - POSIXPERM
600
601 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
602
603 - BSLASHPSPEC
604
605 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
606 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
607
608 - EXECKEEPSPID
609
610 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
611 details.
612
613 - SYMLINKS
614
615 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
616 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
2fac6a4b 617
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618 - SANITY
619
620 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
621 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
2fac6a4b 622
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623 - LIBPCRE
624
625 Git was compiled with USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease. Wrap any tests
626 that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.
627
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628Tips for Writing Tests
629----------------------
630
631As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
632source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
633t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
634that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
635knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
636and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
63740-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
638because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
639to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
640drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
641not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
642such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
643otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
644an update to t0000-basic.sh.
645
646However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
647GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
648knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
649hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
650the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
651validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
652updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
653do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
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655Test coverage
656-------------
657
658You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
659used or properly exercised yet.
660
661To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
662directory):
663
664 make coverage
665
666That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
667report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
668can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
669with GCC's coverage mode.
670
671After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
672functions:
673
674 make coverage-untested-functions
675
676You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
677Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
678
679 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
680 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
681
682 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
683 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
684 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
685
686Then, at the top-level:
687
688 make cover_db_html
689
690That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
691directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
692in a browser.